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                                                      Calendar No. 353
116th Congress     }                                    {       Report
                                 SENATE
 2d Session        }                                    {      116-203

======================================================================



 
                   NUCLEAR ENERGY RENEWAL ACT OF 2019

                                _______
                                

                January 9, 2020.--Ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

        Ms. Murkowski, from the Committee on Energy and Natural 
                   Resources, submitted the following

                              R E P O R T

                         [To accompany S. 2368]

    The Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, to which was 
referred the bill (S. 2368) to amend the Atomic Energy Act of 
1954 and the Energy Policy Act of 2005 to support licensing and 
relicensing of certain nuclear facilities and nuclear energy 
research, demonstration, and development, and for other 
purposes, having considered the same, reports favorably thereon 
with an amendment in the nature of a substitute and an 
amendment to the title and recommends that the bill, as 
amended, do pass.

                               Amendments

    The amendments are as follows:
    Strike all after the enacting clause and insert the 
following:

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

    This Act may be cited as the ``Nuclear Energy Renewal Act of 
2019''.

SEC. 2. LIGHT WATER REACTOR SUSTAINABILITY PROGRAM.

    Section 952 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (42 U.S.C. 16272) is 
amended by striking subsection (b) and inserting the following:
    ``(b) Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program.--The Secretary 
shall carry out a light water reactor sustainability program--
          ``(1) to ensure the achievement of maximum benefits from 
        existing nuclear generation;
          ``(2) to accommodate the increase in applications for nuclear 
        power plant license renewals expected as of the date of 
        enactment of this subsection;
          ``(3) to enable the continued operation of existing nuclear 
        power plants through technology development;
          ``(4) to improve the performance and reduce the operation and 
        maintenance costs of nuclear power plants;
          ``(5) to promote the use of high-performance computing to 
        simulate nuclear reactor processes;
          ``(6) to coordinate with other research and development 
        programs of the Office of Nuclear Energy to ensure that 
        developed technologies and capabilities are part of an 
        integrated investment strategy, the overall focus of which is 
        improving the safety, security, reliability, and economics of 
        operating nuclear power plants; and
          ``(7) to focus on--
                  ``(A) new capabilities relating to nuclear energy 
                research and development;
                  ``(B) enabling technologies beyond individual 
                programs;
                  ``(C) coordinating capabilities among the research 
                and development programs of the Office of Nuclear 
                Energy;
                  ``(D) examining new classes of materials not 
                considered for nuclear applications;
                  ``(E) high-risk research, which could potentially 
                overcome technological limitations; and
                  ``(F) the potential for industry partnerships to 
                develop technologies relating to storage, hydrogen 
                production, high-temperature process heat, and other 
                relevant areas.''.

SEC. 3. NUCLEAR ENERGY RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION.

    Section 952 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (42 U.S.C. 16272) is 
amended by adding at the end the following:
    ``(e) Advanced Reactor Technologies Development Program.--
          ``(1) In general.--The Secretary shall carry out a program 
        under which the Secretary shall conduct research relating to 
        the development of innovative nuclear reactor technologies that 
        may offer improved safety, functionality, and affordability.
          ``(2) Requirements.--The program under this subsection 
        shall--
                  ``(A) support efforts to reduce long-term technical 
                barriers for advanced nuclear energy systems; and
                  ``(B) be carried out in consultation with the Nuclear 
                Regulatory Commission to ensure identification of any 
                relevant concerns.''.

SEC. 4. ADVANCED FUELS DEVELOPMENT.

    Section 953 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (42 U.S.C. 16273) is 
amended--
          (1) by redesignating subsections (a) through (d) as 
        paragraphs (1), (3), (4), and (5), respectively, and indenting 
        appropriately;
          (2) in paragraph (1) (as so redesignated)--
                  (A) by striking ``this section'' and inserting ``this 
                subsection'';
                  (B) by striking ``minimize environmental'' and 
                inserting ``improve fuel cycle performance while 
                minimizing the cost and complexity of processing, 
                environmental impacts,''; and
                  (C) by striking ``the Generation IV'';
          (3) by inserting after paragraph (1) (as so redesignated) the 
        following:
          ``(2) Considerations.--In carrying out activities under the 
        program, the Secretary shall consider the potential benefits of 
        those activities for civilian nuclear applications, 
        environmental remediation, and national security.'';
          (4) by inserting after paragraph (5) (as so redesignated) the 
        following:
          ``(6) Authorization of appropriations.--There is authorized 
        to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out the program 
        $40,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2020 through 2024.'';
          (5) by inserting before paragraph (1) (as so redesignated) 
        the following:
    ``(a) Material Recovery and Waste Form Development.--''; and
          (6) by adding at the end the following:
    ``(b) Advanced Fuels.--
          ``(1) In general.--The Secretary shall carry out a program to 
        conduct research relating to--
                  ``(A) next-generation light water reactor fuels that 
                demonstrate improved--
                          ``(i) performance; and
                          ``(ii) accident tolerance; and
                  ``(B) advanced reactor fuels that demonstrate 
                improved--
                          ``(i) proliferation resistance; and
                          ``(ii) use of resources.
          ``(2) Requirements.--In carrying out the program under this 
        subsection, the Secretary shall--
                  ``(A) focus on the development of accident-tolerant 
                fuel and cladding concepts that are capable of 
                achieving initial commercialization by December 31, 
                2025;
                  ``(B) conduct studies regarding the means by which 
                those concepts would impact reactor economics, the fuel 
                cycle, operations, safety, and the environment;
                  ``(C) subject to paragraph (3), publish the results 
                of the studies conducted under subparagraph (B); and
                  ``(D) cooperate with institutions of higher education 
                through the Nuclear Energy University and Integrated 
                Research Projects programs of the Department.
          ``(3) Sensitive information.--The Secretary shall not publish 
        any information under paragraph (2)(C) that is detrimental to 
        national security, as determined by the Secretary.
          ``(4) Authorization of appropriations.--There is authorized 
        to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out the program 
        under this subsection $120,000,000 for each of fiscal years 
        2020 through 2024.''.

SEC. 5. NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SUPPORT.

    (a) In General.--Section 954 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (42 
U.S.C. 16274) is amended--
          (1) in the section heading, by striking ``University 
        nuclear'' and inserting ``Nuclear'';
          (2) in subsection (b)--
                  (A) in the matter preceding paragraph (1), by 
                striking ``this section'' and inserting ``this 
                subsection''; and
                  (B) by redesignating paragraphs (1) through (5) as 
                subparagraphs (A) through (E), respectively, and 
                indenting appropriately;
          (3) in subsection (c), by redesignating paragraphs (1) and 
        (2) as subparagraphs (A) and (B), respectively, and indenting 
        appropriately;
          (4) in subsection (d)--
                  (A) in the matter preceding paragraph (1), by 
                striking ``this section'' and inserting ``this 
                subsection''; and
                  (B) by redesignating paragraphs (1) through (4) as 
                subparagraphs (A) through (D), respectively, and 
                indenting appropriately;
          (5) in subsection (e), by striking ``this section'' and 
        inserting ``this subsection'';
          (6) in subsection (f)--
                  (A) by striking ``this section'' and inserting ``this 
                subsection''; and
                  (B) by striking ``subsection (b)(2)'' and inserting 
                ``paragraph (2)(B)'';
          (7) by redesignating subsections (a) through (f) as 
        paragraphs (1), (2), (3), (4), (6), and (7), respectively, and 
        indenting appropriately;
          (8) by inserting after paragraph (4) (as so redesignated) the 
        following:
          ``(5) Radiological facilities management.--
                  ``(A) In general.--The Secretary shall carry out a 
                program under which the Secretary shall provide project 
                management, technical support, quality engineering and 
                inspection, and nuclear material support to research 
                reactors located at universities.
                  ``(B) Authorization of appropriations.--In addition 
                to any amounts appropriated to carry out the program 
                under this subsection, there is authorized to be 
                appropriated to the Secretary to carry out the program 
                under this paragraph $15,000,000 for each of fiscal 
                years 2020 through 2024.'';
          (9) by inserting before paragraph (1) (as so redesignated) 
        the following:
    ``(a) University Nuclear Science and Engineering Support.--''; and
          (10) by adding at the end the following:
    ``(b) Nuclear Energy Apprenticeship Subprogram.--
          ``(1) Establishment.--In carrying out the program under 
        subsection (a), the Secretary shall establish a nuclear energy 
        apprenticeship subprogram under which the Secretary shall 
        establish competitively awarded traineeships and 
        apprenticeships in industries that are represented by skilled 
        labor unions and with universities to provide focused, 
        graduate-level training to meet highly focused needs through a 
        tailored academic graduate program that delivers a curriculum 
        with a rigorous thesis or dissertation research requirement 
        aligned with the critical needs of the Department with respect 
        to mission-driven workforce.
          ``(2) Requirements.--In carrying out the subprogram under 
        this subsection, the Secretary shall--
                  ``(A) encourage appropriate partnerships among 
                National Laboratories, affected universities, and 
                industry; and
                  ``(B) on an annual basis, evaluate the needs of the 
                nuclear energy community to implement traineeships for 
                focused topical areas addressing mission-specific 
                workforce needs.
          ``(3) Authorization of appropriations.--There is authorized 
        to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out the subprogram 
        under this subsection $5,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2020 
        through 2024.''.
    (b) Conforming Amendment.--The table of contents of the Energy 
Policy Act of 2005 (Public Law 109--58; 119 Stat. 600) is amended by 
striking the item relating to section 954 and inserting the following:

``SEC. 954. NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SUPPORT.''.

SEC. 6. INTERNATIONAL NUCLEAR ENERGY COOPERATION.

    (a) In General.--Subtitle H of Title IX of the Energy Policy Act of 
2005 (42 U.S.C. 16341 et seq.) is amended by adding at the end the 
following:

``SEC. 986B. INTERNATIONAL NUCLEAR ENERGY COOPERATION. --

    ``(a) In General.--The Secretary shall carry out a program to 
develop bilateral collaboration initiatives with a variety of countries 
through--
          ``(1) research and development agreements;
          ``(2) other relevant arrangements and action plan updates; 
        and
          ``(3) maintaining existing multilateral cooperation 
        commitments of--
                  ``(A) the International Framework for Nuclear Energy 
                Cooperation;
                  ``(B) the Generation IV International Forum;
                  ``(C) the International Atomic Energy Agency; and
                  ``(D) any other international collaborative effort 
                with respect to advanced nuclear reactor operations and 
                safety.
    ``(b) Subprogram.--
          ``(1) In general.--In carrying out the program under 
        subsection (a), the Secretary shall establish a subprogram that 
        shall--
                  ``(A) support diplomatic, nonproliferation, climate, 
                and international economic objectives for the safe, 
                secure, and peaceful use of nuclear technology in 
                countries developing nuclear energy programs, with a 
                focus on countries that have increased civil nuclear 
                cooperation with Russia and China; and
                  ``(B) be modeled after the International Military 
                Education and Training program of the Department of 
                State.
          ``(2) Authorization of appropriations.--There is authorized 
        to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out the subprogram 
        under this subsection $5,500,000 for each of fiscal years 2020 
        through 2024.
    ``(c) Requirements.--The program under subsection (a) shall be 
carried out--
          ``(1) to facilitate, to the maximum extent practicable, 
        workshops and expert-based exchanges to engage industry, 
        stakeholders, and foreign governments regarding international 
        civil nuclear issues, such as training, financing, safety, and 
        options for multinational cooperation on used nuclear fuel 
        disposal; and
          ``(2) in coordination with--
                  ``(A) the National Security Council;
                  ``(B) the Secretary of State;
                  ``(C) the Secretary of Commerce; and
                  ``(D) the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.''.
    (b) Conforming Amendment.--The table of contents of the Energy 
Policy Act of 2005 (Public Law 109--58; 119 Stat. 600) is amended by 
inserting after the item relating to section 986A the following:

``SEC. 986B. INTERNATIONAL NUCLEAR ENERGY COOPERATION.''.

    Amend the title so as to read: ``A bill to amend the Energy Policy 
Act of 2005 to support nuclear energy research, development, and 
demonstration, and for other purposes.''.

                                Purpose

    The purpose of S. 2368, as ordered reported, is to amend 
the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct '05, Public Law 109-58) to 
support nuclear energy research, development, and 
demonstration.

                          Background and Need

    According to a 2019 report by the International Energy 
Agency (IEA), nuclear energy is the second largest source of 
low-carbon electricity in the world, and is essential to 
meeting global clean energy and climate goals. The report also 
finds that the nuclear fleet in advanced economies is 35 years 
old on average and many plants are nearing the end of their 
designed lifetimes. IEA expects 25 percent of existing nuclear 
capacity in advanced economies to be shut down by 2025.
    This trend is evident in the United States, where nuclear 
energy is the largest source of zero-emission electricity. Due 
to a combination of aging and economic pressure, nine nuclear 
reactors have closed since 2013 and another eight reactors have 
announced closure by 2025. Only one new reactor has begun 
operation in that time and only two new reactors are currently 
under construction.
    Conducting research on existing nuclear power plants can 
enable those facilities to continue to operate safely for 
longer periods of time. Other research programs into advanced 
reactors have the potential to support new concepts that can be 
more economically competitive than existing reactors.
    S. 2368 would authorize many programs the Department of 
Energy (DOE) is currently undertaking in nuclear energy 
research. It would also modify the focus of several existing 
programs, including international nuclear energy cooperation, 
increase research and development focus on industrial 
applications, and nuclear energy licensing support.

                          Legislative History

    S. 2368 was introduced by Senators Coons and McSally on 
July 31, 2019. The Energy Subcommittee held a hearing on the 
measure on September 11, 2019.
    The Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources met in 
open business session on November 19, 2019, and ordered S. 2368 
favorably reported, as amended.

                        Committee Recommendation

    The Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, in 
open business session on November 19, 2019, by a majority voice 
vote of a quorum present, recommends that the Senate pass S. 
2368, if amended as described herein. Senators Lee and Hirono 
asked to be recorded as voting no.

                          Committee Amendments

    During its consideration of S. 2368, the Committee adopted 
an amendment in the nature of a substitute and an amendment to 
the title.
    Section 2 of the substitute amendment establishes the light 
water reactor sustainability program (discussed in the section-
by-section analysis) by amending section 952 of EPAct '05, 
relating to light water reactor research, development, and 
deployment programs, rather than section 621 of EPAct '05, as 
was proposed by the underlying bill. Section 2 of the 
substitute amendment also provides additional program guidance 
and removes the authorization of appropriations authorization 
found in the underlying bill.
    The substitute amendment omits amendments to section 103 of 
the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 proposed to be made by section 3 
of the underlying bill. In its place, section 3 of the 
substitute amendment amends section 952 of EPAct '05 to 
establish an advanced reactor technologies development program. 
The substitute amendment requires the program to support 
efforts to reduce long-term technical barriers for advanced 
nuclear energy systems in consultation with the Nuclear 
Regulatory Commission, but does not contain the specific focus 
areas of research and development (R&D); the requirement that 
the Secretary provide assistance to applicants with respect to 
licensing nuclear advanced nuclear production facilities; or 
the appropriations authorization found in the underlying bill.
    The substitute amendment omits amendments to section 952 of 
EPAct '05 relating to an advanced reactor technologies 
development program proposed to be made by section 4 of the 
underlying bill. In its place, section 4 of the substitute 
amends section 953 of EPAct '05, relating to advanced nuclear 
fuel development. Unlike section 4 of the underlying bill, 
section 4 of the substitute amendment does not require the 
advanced fuels program to focus on fast reactors, high-
temperature, gas-cooled reactors, or molten salt reactors. In 
addition, unlike the underlying bill, the substitute amendment 
does not require DOE to develop supercritical carbon dioxide 
technologies.
    The substitute amendment also adds a new section 5. Section 
5 of the substitute amends section 954 of EPAct '05 by adding a 
new subsection (a)(5), which authorizes the Secretary to 
provide project management, technical support, quality 
engineering and inspection, and nuclear material support to 
university research reactors. Section 5 of the substitute also 
amends section 954 of EPAct '05 to require the Secretary to 
establish a nuclear energy apprenticeship program.
    Finally, the substitute amendment adds a new section 6, 
which amends title IX of EPAct '05 to add a new section 986B, 
relating to international nuclear energy cooperation. The new 
section 986B is similar to section 952(k) for EPAct '05 as 
proposed to be added by the underlying bill, except that the 
substitute amendment adds requirements to coordinate with the 
International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation, the 
Generation IV International Forum, and the International Atomic 
Energy Agency. It also modifies the new subprogram on nuclear 
energy training to be focused on countries that have increased 
civil nuclear cooperation with Russia and China.
    The title amendment removes the reference to the Atomic 
Energy Act of 1954.

                      Section-by-Section Analysis


Section 1. Short title

    Section 1 sets forth the short title of the bill.

Section 2. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program

    Section 2 amends section 952(b) of EPAct '05 by replacing 
DOE's existing Nuclear Energy Systems Support Program with a 
new Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program, intended to 
achieve maximum benefit from existing nuclear generation, 
enable continued operation of existing nuclear power plants 
through technology development, and improve performance and 
reduce plant operating and maintenance costs.

Section 3. Nuclear energy research, demonstration, and development

    Section 3 adds a new subsection (e) to section 952 of EPAct 
'05 to authorize an advanced nuclear energy research program to 
develop innovative technologies that may offer improved safety, 
functionality, and affordability by enhancing existing nuclear 
technologies.

Section 4. Advanced fuels development

    Section 4 amends section 953 of EPAct '05 by restructuring 
the current section as subsection (a) and redesignating the 
current subsections as paragraphs. It amends the redesignated 
subsection (a)(1) to require DOE to evaluate technologies that 
improve fuel cycle performance and reduce processing cost and 
complexity, as well as minimize environmental and public health 
and safety impacts. It also inserts a new subsection (a)(2), 
which requires DOE to consider potential benefits for civilian 
nuclear applications, environmental remediation, and national 
security, and a new subsection (a)(6), which authorizes $40 
million annually for fiscal years (FYs) 2020 through 2024 for 
the modified section 953(a) of EPAct '05.
    In addition, section 4 further amends section 953 of EPAct 
'05 by adding a new subsection (b), which directs the Secretary 
to carry out a research program on next-generation light water 
reactor and advanced reactor fuels, and authorizes $120 million 
annually for the new section 953(b) of EPAct '05 for FYs 2020 
through 2024.

Section 5. Nuclear science and engineering support

    Section 5 amends section 954 of EPAct '05 by restructuring 
the current section as subsection (a) and redesignating the 
current subsections as paragraphs. It adds a new paragraph (5) 
to the redesignated subsection (a), which directs the Secretary 
to carry out a radiological facilities management program to 
provide project management, technical support, and nuclear 
material support to university research reactors, and 
authorizes $15 million annually for FYs 2020 through 2024.
    In addition, section 5 amends section 952 to EPAct '05 by 
adding a new subsection (b), which directs the Secretary to 
establish a nuclear energy apprenticeship program, and 
authorizes $5 million annually for FYs years 2020 through 2024 
to carry out the apprenticeship program.

Section 6. International nuclear energy cooperation

    Section 6 adds a new section 986B to EPAct '05 to authorize 
an international nuclear energy cooperation program for 
bilateral R&D agreements with foreign countries, including a 
subprogram to develop nuclear energy in other countries to be 
modeled after the International Military Education and Training 
program of the Department of State. This section also 
authorizes $5.5 million annually for this new subprogram for 
FYs 2020 through 2024.

                   Cost and Budgetary Considerations

    The Congressional Budget Office estimate of the costs of 
this measure has been requested but was not received at the 
time the report was filed. When the Congressional Budget Office 
completes its cost estimate, it will be posted on the internet 
at www.cbo.gov.

                      Regulatory Impact Evaluation

    In compliance with paragraph 11(b) of rule XXVI of the 
Standing Rules of the Senate, the Committee makes the following 
evaluation of the regulatory impact which would be incurred in 
carrying out S. 2368. The bill is not a regulatory measure in 
the sense of imposing Government-established standards or 
significant economic responsibilities on private individuals 
and businesses.
    No personal information would be collected in administering 
the program. Therefore, there would be no impact on personal 
privacy.
    Little, if any, additional paperwork would result from the 
enactment of S. 2368, as ordered reported.

                   Congressionally Directed Spending

    S. 2368, as ordered reported, does not contain any 
congressionally directed spending items, limited tax benefits, 
or limited tariff benefits as defined in rule XLIV of the 
Standing Rules of the Senate.

                        Executive Communications

    The testimony provided by the Department of the Energy at 
the September 11, 2019, hearing on S. 2368 follows:

Testimony of Under Secretary of Energy Mark W. Menezes, U.S. Department 
                               of Energy


                              introduction


    Chairman Cassidy, Ranking Member Heinrich, and Members of 
the Subcommittee, it is a privilege and an honor to serve at 
the Department of Energy (DOE or the Department), which is 
tasked with, among other important responsibilities: overseeing 
the Nation's nuclear energy research and development programs; 
creating and sustaining American leadership in the transition 
to a global clean energy economy; working effectively with the 
States on our Nation's energy challenges; and supporting our 
current, and developing our Nation's future, energy workforce. 
Thank you for the opportunity to testify today on behalf of the 
Department regarding legislation pertinent to DOE that is now 
pending in the Senate.
    I have been asked to testify on nine (9) bills today. The 
Administration continues to review all of these bills. I 
appreciate the ongoing bipartisan efforts to address our 
Nation's energy challenges and I look forward to working with 
the Committee.


                             nuclear energy


    As the major source of clean, reliable, and resilient 
baseload electricity, nuclear energy is a strategic national 
asset for the United States. It is an essential element of the 
Nation's diverse energy portfolio helping to sustain the U.S. 
economy and support our national goals. A strong domestic 
nuclear industry enabled by the existing nuclear fleet and 
enhanced by innovative technology developers is critical to our 
national security interests as well.
S. 2368--Nuclear Energy Renewal Act
    S. 2368, the Nuclear Energy Renewal Act, reauthorizes many 
nuclear energy research and development programs and authorizes 
several new activities to support the existing fleet of nuclear 
power plants while simultaneously accelerating the development 
of innovative advanced nuclear technologies. It supports 
licensing and relicensing of certain nuclear facilities and 
nuclear energy research, demonstration, and development.
    The Department will continue to review the legislation and 
looks forward to working with Congress as the legislative 
process moves forward.


                               conclusion


    Thank you again for the opportunity to be here today. The 
Department appreciates the ongoing bipartisan efforts to 
address our Nation's energy challenges, and looks forward to 
working with the Committee on the legislation on today's agenda 
and any future legislation. I would be happy to answer your 
questions.

                        Changes in Existing Law

    In compliance with paragraph 12 of rule XXVI of the 
Standing Rules of the Senate, the changes in existing law made 
by S. 2368, as reported, are shown as follows (existing law 
proposed to be omitted is enclosed in black brackets, new 
matter is printed in italic, existing law in which no change is 
proposed is shown in roman):

                       ENERGY POLICY ACT OF 2005

Public Law 109-58, as Amended

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *



SECTION 1.--SHORT TITLE; TABLE OF CONTENTS.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


    (b) Table of Contents.--The table of contents of this Act 
is as follows:

TITLE IX--RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


                       Subtitle E--Nuclear Energy

Sec. 951. Nuclear energy.
Sec. 952. Nuclear energy research programs.
Sec. 953. Advanced fuel cycle initiative.
[Sec. 954. University nuclear science and engineering support.]
Sec. 954. Nuclear science and engineering support.
Sec. 955. Department of Energy civilian nuclear infrastructure and 
Sec. 956. Security of nuclear facilities.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


                  Subtitle H--International Cooperation

Sec. 985. Western Hemisphere energy cooperation.
Sec. 986. Cooperation between United States and Israel.
Sec. 986A. International energy training.
Sec. 986B. International nuclear energy cooperation.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


TITLE IX--RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


Subtitle E--Nuclear Energy

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SEC. 952. NUCLEAR ENERGY RESEARCH PROGRAMS.

    (a) Nuclear Energy Research Initiative.--The Secretary 
shall carry out a Nuclear Energy Research Initiative for 
research and development related to nuclear energy.
    [(b) Nuclear Energy Systems Support Program.--The Secretary 
shall carry out a Nuclear Energy Systems Support Program to 
support research and development activities addressing 
reliability, availability, productivity, component aging, 
safety, and security of existing nuclear power plants.]
    (b) Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program.--The 
Secretary shall carry out a light water reactor sustainability 
program--
          (1) to ensure the achievement of maximum benefits 
        from existing nuclear generation;
          (2) to accommodate the increase in applications for 
        nuclear power plant license renewals expected as of the 
        date of enactment of this subsection;
          (3) to enable the continued operation of existing 
        nuclear power plants through technology development;
          (4) to improve the performance and reduce the 
        operation and maintenance costs of nuclear power 
        plants;
          (5) to promote the use of high-performance computing 
        to simulate nuclear reactor processes;
          (6) to coordinate with other research and development 
        programs of the Office of Nuclear Energy to ensure that 
        developed technologies and capabilities are part of an 
        integrated investment strategy, the overall focus of 
        which is improving the safety, security, reliability, 
        and economics of operating nuclear power plants; and 
        (7) to focus on--
                  (A) new capabilities relating to nuclear 
                energy research and development;
                  (B) enabling technologies beyond individual 
                programs;
                  (C) coordinating capabilities among the 
                research and development programs of the Office 
                of Nuclear Energy;
                  (D) examining new classes of materials not 
                considered for nuclear applications;
                  (E) high-risk research, which could 
                potentially overcome technological limitations; 
                and
                  (F) the potential for industry partnerships 
                to develop technologies relating to storage, 
                hydrogen production, high-temperature process 
                heat, and other relevant areas.
    (c) Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative.--
          (1) In general.--The Secretary shall carry out a 
        Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative to 
        develop an overall technology plan for and to support 
        research and development necessary to make an informed 
        technical decision about the most promising candidates 
        for eventual commercial application.
          (2) Administration.--In conducting the Initiative, 
        the Secretary shall examine advanced proliferation-
        resistant and passively safe reactor designs, including 
        designs that--
                  (A) are economically competitive with other 
                electric power generation plants;
                  (B) have higher efficiency, lower cost, and 
                improved safety compared to reactors in 
                operation on the date of enactment of this Act;
                  (C) use fuels that are proliferation 
                resistant and have substantially reduced 
                production of high-level waste per unit of 
                output; and
                  (D) use improved instrumentation.
    (d) Reactor Production of Hydrogen.--The Secretary shall 
carry out research to examine designs for high-temperature 
reactors capable of producing large-scale quantities of 
hydrogen.
    (e) Advanced Reactor Technologies Development Program.--
          (1) In general.--The Secretary shall carry out a 
        program under which the Secretary shall conduct 
        research relating to the development of innovative 
        nuclear reactor technologies that may offer improved 
        safety, functionality, and affordability.
          (2) Requirements.--The program under this subsection 
        shall--
                  (A) support efforts to reduce long-term 
                technical barriers for advanced nuclear energy 
                systems; and
                  (B) be carried out in consultation with the 
                Nuclear Regulatory Commission to ensure 
                identification of any relevant concerns.

SEC. 953. ADVANCED FUEL CYCLE INITIATIVE.

    (a) Material Recovery and Waste Form Development.--
    [(a)] (1) In general.--The Secretary shall conduct an 
advanced fuel recycling technology research, development, and 
demonstration program (referred to in this [section] subsection 
as the ``program'') to evaluate proliferation-resistant fuel 
recycling and transmutation technologies that [minimize 
environmental] improve fuel cycle performance while minimizing 
the cost and complexity of processing, environmental impacts, 
and public health and safety impacts as an alternative to 
aqueous reprocessing technologies deployed as of the date of 
enactment of this Act in support of evaluation of alternative 
national strategies for spent nuclear fuel and the [Generation 
IV] advanced reactor concepts.
    (2) Considerations.--In carrying out activities under the 
program, the Secretary shall consider the potential benefits of 
those activities for civilian nuclear applications, 
environmental remediation, and national security.
    [(b)] (3) Annual review.--The program shall be subject to 
annual review by the Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee 
of the Department or other independent entity, as appropriate.
    [(c)] (4) International cooperation.--In carrying out the 
program, the Secretary is encouraged to seek opportunities to 
enhance the progress of the program through international 
cooperation.
    [(d)] (5) Reports.--The Secretary shall submit, as part of 
the annual budget submission of the Department, a report on the 
activities of the program.
    (6) Authorization of appropriations.--There is authorized 
to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out the program 
$40,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2020 through 2024.
    (b) Advanced Fuels.--
          (1) In general.--The Secretary shall carry out a 
        program to conduct research relating to--
                  (A) next-generation light water reactor fuels 
                that demonstrate improved--
                          (i) performance; and
                          (ii) accident tolerance; and
                  (B) advanced reactor fuels that demonstrate 
                improved--
                          (i) proliferation resistance; and
                          (ii) use of resources.
          (2) Requirements.--In carrying out the program under 
        this subsection, the Secretary shall--
                  (A) focus on the development of accident-
                tolerant fuel and cladding concepts that are 
                capable of achieving initial commercialization 
                by December 31, 2025;
                  (B) conduct studies regarding the means by 
                which those concepts would impact reactor 
                economics, the fuel cycle, operations, safety, 
                and the environment;
                  (C) subject to paragraph (3), publish the 
                results of the studies conducted under 
                subparagraph (B); and
                  (D) cooperate with institutions of higher 
                education through the Nuclear Energy University 
                and Integrated Research Projects programs of 
                the Department.
          (3) Sensitive information.--The Secretary shall not 
        publish any information under paragraph (2)(C) that is 
        detrimental to national security, as determined by the 
        Secretary.
          (4) Authorization of appropriations.--There is 
        authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry 
        out the program under this subsection $120,000,000 for 
        each of fiscal years 2020 through 2024.''.

SEC. 954. [UNIVERSITY NUCLEAR] NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SUPPORT.

    (a) University Nuclear Science and Engineering Support.--
          [(A)] (1) In general.--The Secretary shall conduct a 
        program to invest in human resources and infrastructure 
        in the nuclear sciences and related fields, including 
        health physics, nuclear engineering, and 
        radiochemistry, consistent with missions of the 
        Department related to civilian nuclear research, 
        development, demonstration, and commercial application.
    [(b)] (2) Requirements.--In carrying out the program under 
[this section] this subsection, the Secretary shall--
          [(1)] (A) conduct a graduate and undergraduate 
        fellowship program to attract new and talented 
        students, which may include fellowships for students to 
        spend time at National Laboratories in the areas of 
        nuclear science, engineering, and health physics with a 
        member of the National Laboratory staff acting as a 
        mentor;
          [(2)] (B) conduct a junior faculty research 
        initiation grant program to assist universities in 
        recruiting and retaining new faculty in the nuclear 
        sciences and engineering by awarding grants to junior 
        faculty for research on issues related to nuclear 
        energy engineering and science;
          [(3)] (C) support fundamental nuclear sciences, 
        engineering, and health physics research through a 
        nuclear engineering education and research program;
          [(4)] (D) encourage collaborative nuclear research 
        among industry, National Laboratories, and 
        universities; and
          [(5)] (E) support communication and outreach related 
        to nuclear science, engineering, and health physics.
    [(c)] (3) University national laboratory interactions.--The 
Secretary shall conduct--
          [(1)] (A) a fellowship program for professors at 
        universities to spend sabbaticals at National 
        Laboratories in the areas of nuclear science and 
        technology; and
          [(2)] (B) a visiting scientist program in which 
        National Laboratory staff can spend time in academic 
        nuclear science and engineering departments.
    [(d)] (4) Strengthening university research and training 
reactors and associated infrastructure.--In carrying out the 
program under this [section] this subsection, the Secretary may 
support--
          [(1)] (A) converting research reactors from high-
        enrichment fuels to low-enrichment fuels and upgrading 
        operational instrumentation;
          [(2)] (B) consortia of universities to broaden access 
        to university research reactors;
          [(3)] (C) student training programs, in collaboration 
        with the United States nuclear industry, in relicensing 
        and upgrading reactors, including through the provision 
        of technical assistance; and
          [(4)] (D) reactor improvements that emphasize 
        research, training, and education, including through 
        the Innovations in Nuclear Infrastructure and Education 
        Program or any similar program.
          (5) Radiological facilities management.--
                  (A) In general.--The Secretary shall carry 
                out a program under which the Secretary shall 
                provide project management, technical support, 
                quality engineering and inspection, and nuclear 
                material support to research reactors located 
                at universities.
                  (B) Authorization of appropriations.--In 
                addition to any amounts appropriated to carry 
                out the program under this subsection, there is 
                authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary 
                to carry out the program under this paragraph 
                $15,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2020 
                through 2024.
    [(e)] (6) Operations and maintenance.--Funding for a 
project provided under [this section] this subsection may be 
used for a portion of the operating and maintenance costs of a 
research reactor at a university used in the project.
    [(f)] (7) Definition.--In [this section] this subsection, 
the term ``junior faculty'' means a faculty member who was 
awarded a doctorate less than 10 years before receipt of an 
award from the grant program described in [subsection (b)(2)] 
paragraph (2)(B).
    (b) Nuclear Energy Apprenticeship Subprogram.--
          (1) Establishment.--In carrying out the program under 
        subsection (a), the Secretary shall establish a nuclear 
        energy apprenticeship subprogram under which the 
        Secretary shall establish competitively awarded 
        traineeships and apprenticeships in industries that are 
        represented by skilled labor unions and with 
        universities to provide focused, graduate-level 
        training to meet highly focused needs through a 
        tailored academic graduate program that delivers a 
        curriculum with a rigorous thesis or dissertation 
        research requirement aligned with the critical needs of 
        the Department with respect to mission-driven 
        workforce.
          (2) Requirements.--In carrying out the subprogram 
        under this subsection, the Secretary shall--
                  (A) encourage appropriate partnerships among 
                National Laboratories, affected universities, 
                and industry; and
                  (B) on an annual basis, evaluate the needs of 
                the nuclear energy community to implement 
                traineeships for focused topical areas 
                addressing mission-specific workforce needs.
          (3) Authorization of appropriations.--There is 
        authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry 
        out the subprogram under this subsection $5,000,000 for 
        each of fiscal years 2020 through 2024

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Subtitle H--International Cooperation

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SEC. 986A. INTERNATIONAL ENERGY TRAINING.

    (a) In General.--The Secretary, in consultation with the 
Secretary of Commerce, the Secretary of the Interior, and 
Secretary of State, and the Federal Energy Regulatory 
Commission, shall coordinate training and outreach efforts for 
international commercial energy markets in countries with 
developing and restructuring economies.
    (b) Components.--The training and outreach efforts referred 
to in subsection (a) may include--
          (1) production-related fiscal regimes;
          (2) grid and network issues;
          (3) energy user and demand side response;
          (4) international trade of energy; and
          (5) international transportation of energy.
    (c) Authorization of Appropriations.--There is authorized 
to be appropriated to carry out this section $1,500,000 for 
each of fiscal years 2007 through 2010.

SEC. 986B. INTERNATIONAL NUCLEAR ENERGY COOPERATION. --

    (a) In General.--The Secretary shall carry out a program to 
develop bilateral collaboration initiatives with a variety of 
countries through--
          (1) research and development agreements;
          (2) other relevant arrangements and action plan 
        updates; and
          (3) maintaining existing multilateral cooperation 
        commitments of--
                  (A) the International Framework for Nuclear 
                Energy Cooperation;
                  (B) the Generation IV International Forum;
                  (C) the International Atomic Energy Agency; 
                and
                  (D) any other international collaborative 
                effort with respect to advanced nuclear reactor 
                operations and safety.
    (b) Subprogram.--
          (1) In general.--In carrying out the program under 
        subsection (a), the Secretary shall establish a 
        subprogram that shall--
                  (A) support diplomatic, nonproliferation, 
                climate, and international economic objectives 
                for the safe, secure, and peaceful use of 
                nuclear technology in countries developing 
                nuclear energy programs, with a focus on 
                countries that have increased civil nuclear 
                cooperation with Russia and China; and
                  (B) be modeled after the International 
                Military Education and Training program of the 
                Department of State.
          (2) Authorization of appropriations.--There is 
        authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry 
        out the subprogram under this subsection $5,500,000 for 
        each of fiscal years 2020 through 2024.
    (c) Requirements.--The program under subsection (a) shall 
be carried out--
          (1) to facilitate, to the maximum extent practicable, 
        workshops and expert-based exchanges to engage 
        industry, stakeholders, and foreign governments 
        regarding international civil nuclear issues, such as 
        training, financing, safety, and options for 
        multinational cooperation on used nuclear fuel 
        disposal; and
          (2) in coordination with--
                  (A) the National Security Council;
                  (B) the Secretary of State;
                  (C) the Secretary of Commerce; and
                  (D) the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

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