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                                                        Calendar No. 62
116th Congress     }                                       {     Report
                                 SENATE 
 1st Session       }                                       {     116-27
_______________________________________________________________________

                                     


         DHS CYBER HUNT AND INCIDENT RESPONSE TEAMS ACT OF 2019

                               __________

                              R E P O R T

                                 of the

                   COMMITTEE ON HOMELAND SECURITY AND

                          GOVERNMENTAL AFFAIRS

                          UNITED STATES SENATE

                              to accompany

                                 S. 315

          TO AUTHORIZE CYBER HUNT AND INCIDENT RESPONSE TEAMS
     AT THE DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES
















[GRAPHIC(S) NOT AVAILABLE IN TIFF FORMAT]











                 April 8, 2019.--Ordered to be printed 
                 
                 
                                   ______

		 
                     U.S. GOVERNMENT PUBLISHING OFFICE 
		 
89-010                    WASHINGTON : 2019                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
        COMMITTEE ON HOMELAND SECURITY AND GOVERNMENTAL AFFAIRS

                    RON JOHNSON, Wisconsin, Chairman
ROB PORTMAN, Ohio                    GARY C. PETERS, Michigan
RAND PAUL, Kentucky                  THOMAS R. CARPER, Delaware
JAMES LANKFORD, Oklahoma             MAGGIE HASSAN, New Hampshire
MITT ROMNEY, Utah                    KAMALA D. HARRIS, California
RICK SCOTT, Florida                  KYRSTEN SINEMA, Arizona
MICHAEL B. ENZI, Wyoming             JACKY ROSEN, Nevada
JOSH HAWLEY, Missouri

                Gabrielle D'Adamo Singer, Staff Director
                  Joseph C. Folio, III, Chief Counsel
              Colleen E. Berny, Professional Staff Member
               David M. Weinberg, Minority Staff Director
               Zachary I. Schram, Minority Chief Counsel
         Alexa E. Noruk, Minority Director of Homeland Security
                     Laura W. Kilbride, Chief Clerk


















 
                                                        Calendar No. 62
116th Congress     }                                       {     Report
                                 SENATE 
 1st Session       }                                       {     116-27

======================================================================



 
              DHS CYBER HUNT AND INCIDENT RESPONSE TEAMS 
                              ACT OF 2019

                                _______
                                

                 April 8, 2019.--Ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

 Mr. Johnson, from the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental 
                    Affairs, submitted the following

                              R E P O R T

                         [To accompany S. 315]

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]

    The Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental 
Affairs, to which was referred the bill (S. 315) to authorize 
cyber hunt incident response teams at the Department of 
Homeland Security, and for other purposes, having considered 
the same, reports favorably thereon with an amendment (in the 
nature of a substitute) and recommends that the bill, as 
amended, do pass.

                                CONTENTS

                                                                   Page
  I. Purpose and Summary..............................................1
 II. Background and Need for the Legislation..........................2
III. Legislative History..............................................4
 IV. Section-by-Section Analysis......................................4
  V. Evaluation of Regulatory Impact..................................5
 VI. Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate........................5
VII. Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported............6

                         I. Purpose and Summary

    The purpose of S. 315, the Department of Homeland Security 
Cyber Hunt and Incident Response Teams Act of 2019, is to 
authorize the Department of Homeland Security (DHS, or the 
Department) to maintain cyber hunt and incident response teams 
(teams), codify an existing program within the Department, and 
foster public-private cooperation. The legislation instructs 
the Department to ensure that the teams assist in protecting 
infrastructure from cyber threats and help restore the 
functionality of private or public infrastructure following a 
cyberattack. The teams must also identify cybersecurity risks, 
develop mitigation strategies, and provide guidance to 
infrastructure owners.
    The bill helps build public-private partnerships by 
authorizing the Department to include private cybersecurity 
specialists on the teams. To help inform the Congress about the 
extent to which the teams are effective in accomplishing their 
mission and whether the Department was effectively mitigating 
cybersecurity risk, the Department must maintain metrics that 
are quantifiable, actionable, can make the teams more 
effective, and provide reports to the appropriate Congressional 
committees.\1\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \1\On September 26, 2018, the Committee approved S. 3309, DHS Cyber 
Incident Response Teams Act of 2018. That bill is substantially similar 
to S. 315. Accordingly, this committee report is in large part a 
reproduction of Chairman Johnson's committee report for S. 3309, S. 
Rep. No. 115-412.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

              II. Background and Need For the Legislation

    In 2009, the Department created the National Cybersecurity 
and Communications Integration Center (NCCIC) to coordinate and 
streamline the nation's response to cyber threats.\2\ The 
National Cybersecurity Protection Act of 2014 and the amendment 
by the Cybersecurity Act of 2015 authorized the NCCIC to 
``receive, analyze, and disseminate information about 
cybersecurity risks and incidents and to provide guidance, 
assessments, incident response support, and other technical 
assistance upon request.''\3\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \2\Press Release, Dep't of Homeland Sec., Secretary Napolitano 
Opens New National Cybersecurity and Communications Integration Center 
(Oct. 30, 2009), available at https://www.dhs.gov/news/2009/10/30/new-
national-cybersecurity-center-opened.
    \3\Dep't of Homeland Sec., U.S. Department of Homeland Security 
Cybersecurity Strategy (May 15, 2018), available at https://
www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/DHS-Cybersecurity-
Strategy_0.pdf.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    In an effort to advance these responsibilities, the NCCIC 
combined the incident response capabilities within the United 
States Computer Emergency Readiness Team and the Industrial 
Control Systems Computer Emergency Response Team, to form the 
Hunt and Incident Response Team (HIRT).\4\ The goal of HIRT is 
to provide ``onsite incident response, free of charge, to 
organizations that require immediate investigation and 
resolution of cyber-attacks.''\5\ According to the NCCIC:
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \4\See Dep't of Homeland Sec., Nat'l Cybersecurity & Commc'ns 
Integration Ctr., NCCIC Fact Sheet (last accessed Mar. 12, 2019), 
available at https://ics-cert.us-cert.gov/sites/default/files/
FactSheets/NCCIC%20ICS_FactSheet_NCCIC%20ICS_S508C.pdf.
    \5\Id.

          Upon notification of a cyber incident, HIRT will 
        perform a preliminary diagnosis to determine the extent 
        of the compromise. At the customer's request, HIRT can 
        deploy a team to meet with the affected organization to 
        review network topology, identify infected systems, 
        image drives for analysis, and collect other data as 
        needed to perform thorough follow on analysis. HIRT is 
        able to provide mitigation strategies and assist asset 
        owners/operators in restoring service and provide 
        recommendations for improving overall network and 
        control systems security.\6\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \6\Id.

    During the 115th Congress, the Committee held hearings 
regarding cyber threats facing the United States and the need 
to mitigate the nation's cybersecurity risk. In May 2017, Mr. 
Stephen Chabinsky, a former official with the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation and a cybersecurity expert, testified before the 
Committee and described the cybersecurity landscape in stark 
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
terms:

          The cyber threat is real and growing. Our 
        vulnerabilities are real and growing. Our reliance on 
        technology is real and growing. The harm from cyber-
        attacks is real and growing. Government agency cyber 
        risk is real and growing. The risk to our national 
        security is real and growing. The amount of time, 
        money, and talent that our country is diverting from 
        other issues and devoting to cybersecurity is real and 
        growing. All of these problems are real and growing, 
        and they are getting worse.\7\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \7\Cyber Threats Facing America: An Overview of the Cybersecurity 
Threat Landscape: Hearing before S. Comm. on Homeland Sec. & 
Governmental Affairs 115th Cong. (2017) (statement of Steven Chabinsky, 
Global Chair of Data, Privacy, and Cyber Security, White & Case LLP), 
https://www.hsgac.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/Testimony-Chabinsky-2017-05-
10-REVISED.pdf.

    The Committee also heard testimony about the role that the 
Department of Homeland Security plays in addressing national 
cybersecurity risk. In April 2018, Jeanette Manfra, Assistant 
Secretary, Office of Cybersecurity and Communications, with the 
former National Protection and Programs Directorate (NPPD), now 
the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency, testified 
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
about their role:

          We endeavor to enhance cyber threat information-
        sharing across the globe to stop cyber incidents before 
        they start and help businesses and government agencies 
        to protect their cyber systems and quickly recover 
        should such an attack occur.\8\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \8\Mitigating America's Cybersecurity Risk: Hearing before S. Comm. 
on Homeland Sec. & Governmental Affairs 115th Cong. (2018) (statement 
of Jeanette Manfra, Assistant Sec., Office of Cybersecurity & 
Communications, Nat'l Programs & Prot. Directorate, U.S. Dep't of 
Homeland Sec.), available at https://www.hsgac.senate.gov/imo/media/
doc/Testimony-Manfra-2018-04-24.pdf.

    Gregory Wilshusen, Director of Information Security Issues 
at the Government Accountability Office, testified about the 
Department's need to ``enhance efforts to improve and promote 
the security of federal and private sector networks.''\9\ Mr. 
Wilshusen described opportunities for the NCCIC to enhance its 
work to support national cybersecurity:
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \9\Id. (statement of Gregor Wilshusen, Director of Information 
Security Issues, U.S. Gov't Accountability Office), available at 
https://www.hsgac.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/Testimony-Wilshusen-2018-04-
24.pdf.

          [T]he extent to which the [NCCIC] had performed its 
        required functions in accordance with statutorily 
        defined implementing principles was unclear, in part, 
        because the [NCCIC] had not established metrics and 
        methods by which to evaluate its performance against 
        the principles. Further, in its role as the lead 
        federal agency for collaborating with eight critical 
        infrastructure sectors including the communications and 
        dams sectors, DHS had not developed metrics to measure 
        and report on the effectiveness of its cyber risk 
        mitigation activities or on the cybersecurity posture 
        of the eight sectors.\10\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \10\Id.

    S. 315 codifies the Department's cyber hunt and incident 
response teams and requires the NCCIC to assess the cyber 
incident response teams and their operations. The legislation 
also requires the NCCIC to define the teams' goals and 
outcomes, and develop appropriate metrics. These metrics must 
be quantifiable, actionable, and improve the overall 
effectiveness and accountability of the teams. A report to the 
appropriate congressional committees on the metrics and 
additional data on the teams' performance is required for each 
of the first four fiscal years after date of enactment. The 
combinations of these metrics and reporting will help Congress 
better understand the team's and NCCIC's ability to mitigate 
national cybersecurity risk.

                        III. Legislative History

    Senators Margaret Wood Hassan (D-NH) and Rob Portman (R-OH) 
introduced S. 315 on January 31, 2019. The bill was referred to 
the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs.
    The Committee considered S. 315 at a business meeting on 
February 13, 2019. Senator Hassan offered a substitute 
amendment that made technical changes, required the Department 
to define the teams' goals and desired outcomes, and further 
clarified the evaluation metrics, including requiring the 
Department to develop appropriate metrics that are quantifiable 
and actionable. The Committee adopted the substitute amendment 
and ordered the bill, as amended, reported favorably by voice 
vote en bloc. Senators present for both the vote on the 
substitute amendment and the vote on the bill as amended were: 
Johnson, Portman, Paul, Lankford, Romney, Scott, Enzi, Hawley, 
Peters, Carper, Hassan, Harris, Sinema, and Rosen.

        IV. Section-by-Section Analysis of the Bill, as Reported


Section 1. Short title

    This section provides the bill's short title, the ``DHS 
Cyber Hunt and Incident Response Teams Act of 2019.''

Section 2. Department of Homeland Security cyber hunt incident response 
        teams

    Subsection (a) amends the Homeland Security Act to allow 
DHS to include private sector cybersecurity specialists in the 
composition of entities and persons at the NCCIC, as well as 
members of cyber hunt and incident response teams.
    The subsection further authorizes the NCCIC to maintain 
cyber hunt and incident response teams to provide assistance 
upon request for specific purposes. The legislation authorizes 
the teams to provide cybersecurity response and technical 
assistance, upon request, to Federal and non-Federal entities. 
The types of assistance can include, ``restoring services 
following a cyber incident''; ``identification of cybersecurity 
risk and unauthorized cyber activity''; ``mitigation strategies 
to prevent, deter, and protect against cybersecurity risks''; 
and ``recommendations to asset owners and operators for 
improving overall network and control systems security to lower 
cybersecurity risks''.
    This subsection also requires the NCCIC to define the goals 
and outcomes for the teams and develop metrics. The metrics are 
required to be quantifiable, actionable, and be used to improve 
the teams' overall effectiveness and accountability. The 
subsection also states that the Secretary may include private 
sector cybersecurity specialists on the teams after providing 
notice to a requesting entity, and with their approval.
    Subsection (b) requires a yearly report to the appropriate 
Congressional Committees evaluating the teams, including 
incident data and interagency staffing information.
    Subsection (c) states that no additional funds are 
authorized by the legislation.

                   V. Evaluation of Regulatory Impact

    Pursuant to the requirements of paragraph 11(b) of rule 
XXVI of the Standing Rules of the Senate, the Committee has 
considered the regulatory impact of this bill and determined 
that the bill will have no regulatory impact within the meaning 
of the rules. The Committee agrees with the Congressional 
Budget Office's statement that the bill contains no 
intergovernmental or private-sector mandates as defined in the 
Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA) and would impose no costs 
on state, local, or tribal governments.

             VI. Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate

                                     U.S. Congress,
                               Congressional Budget Office,
                                 Washington, DC, February 19, 2019.
Hon. Ron Johnson, Chairman,
Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs,
U.S. Senate, Washington, DC.
    Dear Mr. Chairman: The Congressional Budget Office has 
prepared the enclosed cost estimate for S. 315, the DHS Cyber 
Hunt and Incident Response Teams Act of 2019.
    If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be 
pleased to provide them. The CBO staff contact is Aldo 
Prosperi.
            Sincerely,
                                                Keith Hall,
                                                          Director.
    Enclosure.

    [GRAPHIC(S) NOT AVAILABLE IN TIFF FORMAT]
    

    S. 315 would codify the role and responsibilities of 
existing hunt and incident response teams (HIRTs) under the 
authority of the National Cybersecurity and Communications 
Integration Center (NCCIC) in the Department of Homeland 
Security (DHS). Under the bill, HIRTs would continue to provide 
assistance to federal and nonfederal entities affected by 
malicious cyber activity.
    S. 315 also would require the NCCIC to report to the 
Congress on HIRT operations at the end of each of the first 
four fiscal years following the bill's enactment. On the basis 
of information from DHS and considering information about 
similar reporting requirements, CBO estimates that enacting S. 
315 would cost less than $500,000 over the 2019-2024 period; 
such spending would be subject to the availability of 
appropriated funds.
    The CBO staff contact for this estimate is Aldo Prosperi. 
The estimate was reviewed by Leo Lex, Deputy Assistant Director 
for Budget Analysis.

       VII. Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported

    In compliance with paragraph 12 of rule XXVI of the 
Standing Rules of the Senate, changes in existing law made by 
S. 315 as reported are shown as follows (existing law proposed 
to be omitted is enclosed in brackets, new matter is printed in 
italic, and existing law in which no change is proposed is 
shown in roman):

HOMELAND SECURITY ACT OF 2002

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


TITLE II--INFORMATION ANALYSIS AND INFRASTRUCTURE PROTECTION

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


Subtitle B--Critical Infrastructure Information

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SEC. 227. NATIONAL CYBERSECURITY AND COMMUNICATIONS INTEGRATION CENTER.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


    (a) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (d) Composition.--
          (1) In general.--The Center shall be composed of--
                  (A) * * *
                  (B) appropriate representatives of non-
                Federal entities, such as--
                          (i) State, local, and tribal 
                        governments;
                          (ii) information sharing and analysis 
                        organizations, including information 
                        sharing and analysis centers;
                          (iii) owners and operators of 
                        critical information systems; and
                          (iv) private entities, including 
                        cybersecurity specialists;

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (e) * * *
    (f) Cyber Hunt and Incident Response Teams.--
          (1) In general.--The Center shall maintain cyber hunt 
        and incident response teams for the purpose of leading 
        Federal asset response activities and providing timely 
        technical assistance to Federal and non-Federal 
        entities, including across all critical infrastructure 
        sectors, regarding actual or potential security 
        incidents, as appropriate and upon request, including--
                  (A) assistance to asset owners and operators 
                in restoring services following a cyber 
                incident;
                  (B) identification and analysis of 
                cybersecurity risk and unauthorized cyber 
                activity;
                  (C) mitigation strategies to prevent, deter, 
                and protect against cybersecurity risks;
                  (D) recommendations to asset owners and 
                operators for improving overall network and 
                control systems security to lower cybersecurity 
                risks, and other recommendations, as 
                appropriate; and
                  (E) such other capabilities as the Secretary 
                determines appropriate.
          (2) Associated metrics.--The Center shall--
                  (A) define the goals and desired outcomes for 
                each cyber hunt and incident response team; and
                  (B) develop metrics--
                          (i) to measure the effectiveness and 
                        efficiency of each cyber hunt and 
                        incident response team in achieving the 
                        goals and desired outcomes defined 
                        under subparagraph (A); and
                          (ii) that--
                                  (I) are quantifiable and 
                                actionable; and
                                  (II) the Center shall use to 
                                improve the effectiveness and 
                                accountability of, and service 
                                delivery by, cyber hunt and 
                                incident response teams.
          (3) Cybersecurity specialists.--After notice to, and 
        with the approval of, the entity requesting action by 
        or technical assistance from the Center, the Secretary 
        may include cybersecurity specialists from the private 
        sector on a cyber hunt and incident response team.
    [f](g) No Right or Benefit.--
          (1) In general.--The provision of assistance or 
        information to, and inclusion in the Center, or any 
        team or activity of the Center, of, governmental or 
        private entities under this section shall be at the 
        sole and unreviewable discretion of the Under Secretary 
        appointed under section 103(a)(1)(H).
          (2) Certain assistance or information.--The provision 
        of certain assistance or information to, or inclusion 
        in the Center, or any team or activity of the Center, 
        of, one governmental or private entity pursuant to this 
        section shall not create a right or benefit, 
        substantive or procedural, to similar assistance or 
        information for any other governmental or private 
        entity.
    [g](h) Automated Information Sharing.--

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    [h](i) Voluntary Information Sharing Procedures.--

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    [i](j) Direct Reporting.--* * *
    [j](k) Reports on International Cooperation.--* * *
    [k](l) Outreach.--* * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    [l](m) Cybersecurity Outreach.--

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    [m](n) Coordinated Vulnerability Disclosure.--* * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


                                  [all]