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                                                       Calendar No. 36
116th Congress      }                                     {     Report
                                 SENATE
 1st Session        }                                     {      116-5
_______________________________________________________________________

                                     

 
       NATIONAL CYBERSECURITY PREPAREDNESS CONSORTIUM ACT OF 2019

                               __________

                              R E P O R T

                                 of the

                   COMMITTEE ON HOMELAND SECURITY AND

                          GOVERNMENTAL AFFAIRS

                          UNITED STATES SENATE

                              to accompany

                                 S. 333

                 To Authorize the Secretary of Homeland

           Security to Work With Cybersecurity Consortia for

                    Training, and For Other Purposes







[GRAPHIC(S) NOT AVAILABLE IN TIFF FORMAT]








                 March 12, 2019.--Ordered to be printed

                                   ______
		 
                     U.S. GOVERNMENT PUBLISHING OFFICE 
		 
89-010                    WASHINGTON : 2019                 




















        COMMITTEE ON HOMELAND SECURITY AND GOVERNMENTAL AFFAIRS

                    RON JOHNSON, Wisconsin, Chairman
ROB PORTMAN, Ohio                    GARY C. PETERS, Michigan
RAND PAUL, Kentucky                  THOMAS R. CARPER, Delaware
JAMES LANKFORD, Oklahoma             MAGGIE HASSAN, New Hampshire
MITT ROMNEY, Utah                    KAMALA D. HARRIS, California
RICK SCOTT, Florida                  KYRSTEN SINEMA, Arizona
MICHAEL B. ENZI, Wyoming             JACKY ROSEN, Nevada
JOSH HAWLEY, Missouri

                Gabrielle D'Adamo Singer, Staff Director
                   Joseph C. Folio III, Chief Counsel
                   Michael J.R. Flynn, Senior Counsel
               David M. Weinberg, Minority Staff Director
               Zachary I. Schram, Minority Chief Counsel
         Alexa E. Noruk, Minority Director of Homeland Security
                     Laura W. Kilbride, Chief Clerk





























                                                       Calendar No. 36
116th Congress      }                                     {     Report
                                 SENATE
 1st Session        }                                     {      116-5

======================================================================



 
       NATIONAL CYBERSECURITY PREPAREDNESS CONSORTIUM ACT OF 2019

                                _______
                                

                 March 12, 2019.--Ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

 Mr. Johnson, from the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental 
                    Affairs, submitted the following

                              R E P O R T

                         [To accompany S. 333]

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]

    The Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental 
Affairs, to which was referred the bill (S. 333), to authorize 
the Secretary of Homeland Security to work with cybersecurity 
consortia for training, and for other purposes, having 
considered the same, reports favorably thereon without 
amendment and recommends that the bill do pass.

                                CONTENTS

                                                                   Page
  I. Purpose and Summary..............................................1
 II. Background and the Need for Legislation..........................2
III.  Legislative History.............................................3
 IV. Section-by-Section Analysis......................................3
  V. Evaluation of Regulatory Impact..................................4
 VI. Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate........................4
VII. Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported............5

                         I. PURPOSE AND SUMMARY

    The purpose of S. 333, the National Cybersecurity 
Preparedness Consortium Act of 2019, is to codify the Secretary 
of Homeland Security's existing authority to work with 
consortia, primarily composed of academic institutions and 
nonprofit entities with expertise in cybersecurity, to address 
cybersecurity risks and incidents. The Secretary may work with 
a consortium to provide assistance to the National 
Cybersecurity and Communications Integration Center (NCCIC) 
within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) to provide 
cybersecurity related training and expertise to state and local 
first responders and critical infrastructure owners and 
operators.\1\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \1\On September 26, 2018, the Committee approved S. 594, the 
National Cybersecurity Preparedness Consortium Act of 2018. That bill 
is substantially similar to S. 333. Accordingly, this committee report 
is in large part a reproduction of Chairman Johnson's committee report 
for S. 594, S. Rep. No. 115-410.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

              II. BACKGROUND AND THE NEED FOR LEGISLATION

    The Committee recognizes the challenges DHS faces in 
fulfilling its cyber mission and implementing timely and 
effective measures to mitigate the security risks posed by 
nefarious cyber incidents.\2\ Specifically, DHS is responsible 
for coordinating the Federal Government's efforts to protect 
the nation's critical infrastructure.\3\ In April 2018, the 
Committee held a hearing entitled, Mitigating America's 
Cybersecurity Risks, to discuss the risks posed by malicious 
cyber incidents and to assess how DHS is using its existing 
authorities and cyber capabilities to minimize security 
risks.\4\ Currently, 85 percent of the United States' national 
critical infrastructure is owned by private entities.\5\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \2\Mitigating America's Cybersecurity Risks: Hearing Before the S. 
Comm. on Homeland Sec. & Governmental Affairs, 115th Cong. (2018) 
(statement of Sen. Ron Johnson, R-WI., Chairman), available at https://
www.hsgac.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/Opening%20Statement-Johnson-2018-04-
24.pdf [hereinafter, Mitigating America's Cybersecurity Risks].
    \3\Press Release, Dep't of Homeland Sec., The Department's Five 
Responsibilities (June 8, 2009), available at https://www.dhs.gov/blog/
2009/06/08/departments-five-responsibilities.
    \4\See generally, Mitigating America's Cybersecurity Risks. 
    \5\Critical Infrastructure Protection, Information Sharing and 
Cyber Security, U.S. Chamber of Commerce, available at https://
www.uschamber.com/issue-brief/critical-infrastructure-protection-
information-sharing-and-cyber-security (last visited Nov. 6, 2018).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    The combination of the cybersecurity manpower shortage and 
the majority of our nation's critical infrastructure being in 
private hands has created a unique public-private environment 
for DHS to operate in.\6\ The Committee held a hearing in June 
2017 entitled, Cybersecurity Regulation Harmonization, to 
highlight the importance of public-private partnerships in 
combating cyber challenges facing DHS. Witness Dean Garfield 
provided written testimony that stated: ``Congress should 
consider the public and private sectors' ongoing collaboration 
and efforts to implement pre-existing regulations before 
further legislating on cybersecurity so that Members may arrive 
at a holistic, federal cybersecurity strategy approach.''\7\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \6\Id.; see also U.S. Gov't Accountability Office, GAO-18-466, 
Cybersecurity Workforce: Agencies Need to Improve Baseline Assessments 
and Procedures for Coding Positions (June 2018), available at https://
www.gao.gov/assets/700/692498.pdf.
    \7\Cybersecurity Regulation Harmonization: Hearing Before the S. 
Comm. on Homeland Sec. & Governmental Affairs, 115th Cong. (2017) 
(statement of Dean Garfield, Pres. and CEO of Info. Tech. Indus. 
Council), available at https://www.hsgac.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/
Testimony-Garfield-2017-06-21-REVISED.pdf.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    During the Committee's April 2018 hearing on mitigating 
cybersecurity risks, the DHS Assistant Secretary for 
Cybersecurity and Communications, Janette Manfra, testified 
that DHS has ``taken steps to empower public and private 
partners to defend against many of these threats by publicly 
attributing state-sponsored activity, issuing technical 
indicators and providing mitigation guidance.''\8\ For example, 
DHS has partnered with universities to aid in cyber security 
training.\9\ In 2004, DHS began partnering with the National 
Cybersecurity Preparedness Consortium.\10\ This consortium 
consists of five university partners from across the United 
States.\11\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \8\Mitigating America's Cybersecurity Risks (statement of Janette 
Manfra, Assistant Sec'y, Off. of Cybersecurity & Comm., Nat'l Programs 
Directorate, Dept. of Homeland Sec).
    \9\About, Nat'l Cyber Security Preparedness Consortium, available 
at http://nationalcpc.org/about.html (last visited Feb. 27, 2019).
    \10\Id.
    \11\Id.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    By leveraging the expertise of consortia, DHS can better 
ensure that its partners in the private sector and state and 
local governments are prepared to assist the Federal Government 
in its efforts to combat cyber threats. S. 333 codifies an 
existing DHS practice and helps strengthen DHS's efforts to 
partner with the private sector and academia to secure our 
nation's cyber infrastructure.

                        III. LEGISLATIVE HISTORY

    Senator John Cornyn, (R-TX) introduced S. 333 on February 
5, 2019, with Senator Ted Cruz (R-TX) and Senator Patrick Leahy 
(D-VT).
    The Committee considered S. 333 at a business meeting on 
February 13, 2019. During the business meeting, S. 333 was 
ordered reported favorably by voice vote en bloc. The Senators 
present for the voice vote were Johnson, Portman, Paul, 
Lankford, Romney, Scott, Enzi, Hawley, Peters, Carper, Hassan, 
Harris, Sinema, and Rosen.

        IV. SECTION-BY-SECTION ANALYSIS OF THE BILL, AS REPORTED

Section 1. Short title

    This section established that the bill may be cited as the 
``National Cybersecurity Preparedness Consortium Act of 2019.''

Section 2. Definitions

    This section includes definitions of the terms 
``consortium,'' ``cybersecurity risk,'' ``incident,'' 
``Department,'' and ``Secretary.''

Section 3. National cybersecurity preparedness consortium

    Subsection (a) gives the Secretary the authority to work 
with a consortium on cyber related issues.
    Subsection (b) gives the Secretary guidance on the type of 
assistance consortia may provide the NCCIC. Under this 
subsection, consortia may be used to assist in the training of 
state and local first responders and private industry actors in 
addressing cybersecurity threats and risks. DHS may also work 
with consortia to develop and update cybersecurity related 
emergency plans and to provide technical assistance related to 
cybersecurity risks and incidents. DHS may also work with the 
consortia to incorporate cybersecurity incident prevention, 
risk, and response in existing state and local emergency plans.
    Subsection (c) requires the Secretary to consider prior 
cybersecurity training experience and geographic diversity when 
selecting consortium participants.
    Subsection (d) requires the Secretary to establish metrics 
for effectiveness of consortium activities.
    Subsection (e) requires the Secretary to inform minority-
serving institutions of their ability to participate in 
consortia and support DHS's cybersecurity efforts.

Section 4. Rule of construction

    This section prohibits the consortium from commanding any 
law enforcement agency or agents.

                   V. EVALUATION OF REGULATORY IMPACT

    Pursuant to the requirements of paragraph 11(b) of rule 
XXVI of the Standing Rules of the Senate, the Committee has 
considered the regulatory impact of this bill and determined 
that the bill will have no regulatory impact within the meaning 
of the rules. The Committee agrees with the Congressional 
Budget Office's statement that the bill contains no 
intergovernmental or private-sector mandates as defined in the 
Unfunded Mandates Reform bill (UMRA) and would impose no costs 
on state, local, or tribal governments.

             VI. CONGRESSIONAL BUDGET OFFICE COST ESTIMATE

                                     U.S. Congress,
                               Congressional Budget Office,
                                 Washington, DC, February 28, 2019.
Hon. Ron Johnson,
Chairman, Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, U.S. 
        Senate, Washington, DC.
    Dear Mr. Chairman: The Congressional Budget Office has 
prepared the enclosed cost estimate for S. 333, the National 
Cybersecurity Preparedness Consortium Act of 2019.
    If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be 
pleased to provide them. The CBO staff contact is Aldo 
Prosperi.
            Sincerely,
                                                Keith Hall,
                                                          Director.
    Enclosure.



    [GRAPHIC(S) NOT AVAILABLE IN TIFF FORMAT]
    

    S. 333 would authorize the Department of Homeland Security 
(DHS) to coordinate with a consortium to assist state and local 
governments to prepare for and respond to cybersecurity risks. 
Since 2014, the department has awarded $13 million in grants to 
members of the National Cybersecurity Preparedness Consortium 
to deliver cybersecurity training and technical assistance to 
state and local governments. CBO expects that DHS would 
continue to provide a similar level of support under S. 333. 
CBO estimates that DHS would provide $3 million in new grant 
funding each year; such spending would be subject to the 
availability of appropriated funds. In total, implementing S. 
333 would cost $18 million over the 2019-2024 period.
    The CBO staff contact for this estimate is Aldo Prosperi. 
The estimate was reviewed by Leo Lex, Deputy Assistant Director 
for Budget Analysis.

       VII. CHANGES IN EXISTING LAW MADE BY THE BILL, AS REPORTED

    Because this legislation would not repeal or amend any 
provision of current law, it would not make changes in existing 
law within the meaning of clauses (a) and (b) of paragraph 12 
of rule XXVI of the Standing Rules of the Senate.

                                  [all]