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116th Congress   }                                     {   Report
                                SENATE  
 1st Session     }                                     {   116-90
                                                                 
_______________________________________________________________________

                                     

                                                       


                       STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT

                       CYBERSECURITY ACT OF 2019

                               __________

                              R E P O R T

                                 of the

                   COMMITTEE ON HOMELAND SECURITY AND

                          GOVERNMENTAL AFFAIRS

                          UNITED STATES SENATE

                              to accompany

                                S. 1846

         TO AMEND THE HOMELAND SECURITY ACT OF 2002 TO PROVIDE
             FOR ENGAGEMENTS WITH STATE, LOCAL, TRIBAL, AND
            TERRITORIAL GOVERNMENTS, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES
            

[GRAPHIC(S) NOT AVAILABLE IN TIFF FORMAT]


               September 10, 2019.--Ordered to be printed
               
                         __________
               
               U.S. GOVERNMENT PUBLISHING OFFICE
 89-010                WASHINGTON : 2019              
 
 
               
               
               
        COMMITTEE ON HOMELAND SECURITY AND GOVERNMENTAL AFFAIRS

                    RON JOHNSON, Wisconsin, Chairman
ROB PORTMAN, Ohio                    GARY C. PETERS, Michigan
RAND PAUL, Kentucky                  THOMAS R. CARPER, Delaware
JAMES LANKFORD, Oklahoma             MAGGIE HASSAN, New Hampshire
MITT ROMNEY, Utah                    KAMALA D. HARRIS, California
RICK SCOTT, Florida                  KYRSTEN SINEMA, Arizona
MICHAEL B. ENZI, Wyoming             JACKY ROSEN, Nevada
JOSH HAWLEY, Missouri

                Gabrielle D'Adamo Singer, Staff Director
                   Joseph C. Folio III, Chief Counsel
               Andrew J. Timm, Professional Staff Member
                   Michael J.R. Flynn, Senior Counsel
               David M. Weinberg, Minority Staff Director
               Zachary I. Schram, Minority Chief Counsel
                  Jeffery D. Rothblum, Minority Fellow
                     Laura W. Kilbride, Chief Clerk
                     
                     
                     
                     
                     

                                                       Calendar No. 194
                                                       
                                                       
116th Congress   }                                            {    Report
                                  SENATE
 1st Session     }                                            {    116-90

======================================================================



 
          STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT CYBERSECURITY ACT OF 2019

                                _______
                                

               September 10, 2019.--Ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

 Mr. Johnson, from the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental 
                    Affairs, submitted the following

                              R E P O R T

                         [To accompany S. 1846]

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]

    The Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental 
Affairs, to which was referred the bill (S. 1846) to amend the 
Homeland Security Act of 2002 to provide for engagements with 
State, local, Tribal and territorial governments, and for other 
purposes, having considered the same, reports favorably thereon 
with an amendment and recommends that the bill, as amended, do 
pass.

                                CONTENTS

                                                                   Page
  I. Purpose and Summary..............................................1
 II. Background and Need for the Legislation..........................2
III. Legislative History..............................................5
 IV. Section-by-Section Analysis......................................6
 VI. Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate........................7
VII. Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported............8

                         I. Purpose and Summary

    The purpose of S. 1846, the State and Local Cybersecurity 
Act of 2019, is to improve the cybersecurity posture of state, 
local, tribal, and territorial governments (SLTTs) through the 
coordination of activities with the Department of Homeland 
Security's (DHS or the Department) National Cybersecurity and 
Communications Integration Center (NCCIC). Specifically, this 
bill requires the NCCIC to coordinate with non-Federal 
entities, such as the Multi-State Information Sharing and 
Analysis Center (MS-ISAC), for the purpose of engaging with 
SLTTs to conduct cybersecurity exercises, provide operational 
and technical cybersecurity training, and among other things, 
provide notifications of specific incidents and malware 
information. The bill also requires the NCCIC to work with 
senior Federal and non-Federal, state and local officials, 
including state and local Chief Information Officers and senior 
election officials, to ensure the effective implementation of 
information security processes and procedures.
    The bill codifies the NCCIC's ability to provide, on a 
voluntary basis, operational and technical assistance to SLTT 
governments. The Department is also authorized to enter into 
cooperative agreements or contracts to carry out the 
responsibilities and coordination activities outlined in this 
bill. The Department is required to provide a report to 
Congress one year after enactment, and every two years 
thereafter on the status of cybersecurity measures in each 
state and the largest urban areas of the United States. 
Finally, S. 1846 authorizes DHS to establish a voluntary 
initiative to deploy technical or analytic capabilities or 
services that utilize classified cyber threat indicators or 
intelligence on unclassified, non-Federal entities' information 
systems to detect and prevent malicious traffic. DHS is 
required to provide a report to Congress on the status of this 
initiative one year after the enactment of this bill.

              II. Background and the Need for Legislation

    State and local governments are under siege by an 
unprecedented number of cyberattacks perpetrated by malicious 
actors and nation-state adversaries exploiting vulnerabilities 
in government-operated information systems and elections 
systems.\1\ However, state and local governments often lack the 
resources and technical capabilities to identify malicious 
activity, and protect and secure their information systems from 
vulnerabilities that leave them susceptible to potentially 
crippling cyberattacks. In May 2019, the cybersecurity firm 
Recorded Future released a report in which it found that 
ransomware attacks--a type of cyberattack in which cyber 
criminals block a victim's access to their computer systems or 
data until the victim pays a monetary sum usually in some form 
of cryptocurrency--against state and local governments 
increased by 39 percent in 2018.\2\ Many states and localities 
are faced with the difficult choice of paying the ransom or 
refusing to pay the hackers to decrypt their information 
systems. In May 2019, the city of Baltimore was attacked by a 
ransomware virus known as Robinhood, which affected the city's 
phone system and other electronically administered services, 
including billing services.\3\ Rather than paying the $76,000 
requested by the hackers, the city of Baltimore opted to 
decline the hackers' offer to decrypt the systems and expects 
to spend an estimated $18 million to harden and protect the 
city's information technology infrastructure from future 
attacks.\4\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \1\Benjamin Freed, State and Local Governments Urged to Beef up 
Ransomware Defense, State Scoop (July 29, 2019), https://
statescoop.com/state-local-government-urged-ransomware-defense/; 
Benjamin Freed, Report: Ransomware Attacks Against State and Local 
Government Are on the Rise, State Scoop (May 13, 2019), https://
statescoop.com/report-ransomware-attacks-against-state-and-local-
government-are-on-the-rise/.
    \2\Allan Liska, Early Findings: Review of State and Local 
Government Ransomware Attacks, Recorded Future 2 (Apr. 2019), https://
www.recordedfuture.com/state-local-government-ransomware-attacks/.
    \3\Benjamin Freed, Baltimore Approves $10 Million for Ransomware 
Recovery, State Scoop (July 26, 2019), https://statescoop.com/
baltimore-city-council-approves-10-million-ransomware-recovery/.
    \4\Id.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    To help SLTTs protect their systems from ransomware and 
other cyberattacks, DHS's Cybersecurity and Infrastructure 
Security Agency and the MS-ISAC, along with a number of other 
organizations, released a joint statement urging state and 
local governments to make cyber preparedness a priority by 
taking pre-emptive measures to secure their networks.\5\ 
Moreover, in July 2019, the National Governors Association 
requested that its members develop robust cyber disruption 
response plans that account for, among other things, continuity 
of government in a disaster situation.\6\ This follows 
Louisiana Governor John Bel Edwards' recent decision to declare 
a state of emergency following a series of ransomware attacks 
that disabled the computer systems of districts throughout the 
state.\7\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \5\CISA, MS-ISAC, NGA & NASCIO Recommend Immediate Action To 
Safeguard Against Ransomware Attacks, https://www.nascio.org/Portals/0/
Ransomware%20Statement.pdf (last visited July 30, 2019).
    \6\State Cyber Disruption Response Plans, Nat'l Governors' Assc. 
(July 2019), https://www.nga.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/
IssueBrief_MG.pdf.
    \7\La. Proc. No. 115 JBE 2019 (July 24, 2019), http://
gov.louisiana.gov/assets/EmergencyProclamations/115-JBE-2019-State-of-
Emergency-Cybersecurity-Incident.pdf.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    In the 115th Congress, to better understand the challenges 
Federal and SLTT governments face when protecting and securing 
information systems and networks from malicious cyberattacks, 
the Committee held a hearing on mitigating cybersecurity 
risks.\8\ During the hearing, then-Assistant Secretary for the 
Office of Cybersecurity and Communications for the DHS's 
National Protection and Programs Directorate Jeanette Manfra 
noted that DHS ``recognize[s] that there is a significant 
technology deficit across state and local governments, and 
State and local election systems, in particular.''\9\ She also 
testified that in response to Russian information operations 
during the 2016 election, DHS is ``leading the interagency 
effort to provide voluntary assistance to State and local 
officials'' to defend election infrastructure.\10\ At the same 
hearing, Eric Rosenbach, Co-Director of the Belfer Center for 
Science and International Affairs at the John F. Kennedy School 
of Government Affairs at Harvard University, testified that 
``States simply are not equipped to face . . . cyber attacks 
from nation-state adversaries who are spending billions of 
dollars and dedicating thousands of cyber operators to advance 
their national interests.''\11\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \8\Mitigating America's Cybersecurity Risk: Hearing Before the S. 
Comm. on Homeland Sec. and Governmental Affairs, 115th Cong. 62 (2018) 
(testimony of Gregory C. Wilshusen, Director, Information Security 
Issues, Government Accountability Office), https://www.govinfo.gov/
content/pkg/CHRG-115shrg32454/pdf/CHRG-115shrg32454.pdf.
    \9\Id.
    \10\Id.
    \11\Id.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    S. 1846 strengthens the SLTT governments' ability to 
mitigate cybersecurity threats by leveraging established 
information sharing and coordination mechanisms within the 
Federal government, such as the NCCIC. In 2013, to clarify 
public and private sector responsibilities in cybersecurity, 
the President issued Presidential Policy Directive 21, which 
established cybersecurity as a ``shared responsibility among 
the [SLTT] entities.''\12\ In 2014, Congress formally 
authorized the NCCIC in the National Cybersecurity Protection 
Act of 2014.\13\ In 2015, Congress further defined the NCCIC's 
role in the Cybersecurity Act of 2015, by tasking the NCCIC 
with sharing cyber threat indicators, coordinating information 
exchange across the Federal Government, and providing 
information and recommendations on security and resilience to 
Federal and non-Federal entities.\14\ Currently, the NCCIC 
functions as the principle civilian cybersecurity and 
communications entity for information-sharing across the SLTT 
governments, the Intelligence Community, law enforcement, and 
international entities.\15\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \12\Press Release, The White House, Presidential Policy Directive--
Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience (Feb. 12, 2013), 
https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2013/02/12/
presidential-policy-directive-critical-infrastructure-security-and-
resil.
    \13\National Cybersecurity Protection Act of 2014, Pub. L. No. 113-
282, 128 Stat. 3066.
    \14\National Cybersecurity Protection Act of 2014, Consolidated 
Appropriations Act, Pub. L. No. 114-113, 129 Stat. 2242 (2015), and 
Pub. L. No. 113-282, Sec. 226, 128 Stat. 3067.
    \15\Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Sec. Agency, Dep't of Homeland 
Sec., Department of Homeland Security Cybersecurity Support to 
Nonfederal Levels of Government: State, Local, Tribal, and Territorial 
Government Entities (2019), https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/
publications/cisa_-
_dhs_cybersecurity_support_to_nonfederal_levels_of_government.pdf.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    The NCCIC shares information and coordinates activities 
through a variety of means, including via information sharing 
and analysis centers (ISACs). In 2010, DHS designated the MS-
ISAC as the cybersecurity ISAC for SLTT governments; the MS-
ISAC is the primary resource for disseminating threat 
information, education materials, and cyber support programs 
for those entities.\16\ Since the 2010 designation, DHS has 
provided funding to the MS-ISAC.\17\ Moreover, to better 
leverage and share threat information with SLTT governments, 
the MS-ISAC has assigned dedicated staff to the NCCIC's watch 
floor.\18\ This enables the MS-ISAC to serve as the focal point 
for threat prevention, protection, response, and recovery for 
state-level cyber incidents.\19\ As of September 2018, MS-ISAC 
membership exceeds 4,200 organizations and includes all 50 
states.\20\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \16\Information Sharing and Awareness, Dep't of Homeland Sec., 
https://www.dhs.gov/cisa/information-sharing-and-awareness (last 
visited July 19, 2019).
    \17\Id.
    \18\Id.
    \19\Id.
    \20\Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Sec. Agency, supra note 15, at 
13.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Since 2012, DHS has funded the MS-ISAC to conduct an annual 
self-assessment, which is delivered in the form of a report, to 
measure gaps and capabilities of SLTT governments' 
cybersecurity programs.\21\ The self-assessment measures SLTT 
government respondents' maturity levels based on the functions 
defined in the National Institute of Standards and Technology's 
Cybersecurity Framework for Critical Infrastructure and divides 
respondents into three major categories: state, local, and 
tribal governments. The MS-ISAC's FY 2017 report determined 
that states are projected to achieve ``the recommended minimum 
maturity across all functions in 2023'' and local governments 
are expected to achieve minimum maturity 2024.\22\ The report 
did not provide an estimate for the tribal government category 
attaining the minimum recommended maturity level, but noted 
that as a group, tribal governments declined across all 
functions by an average of 12 percent in comparison to the 
previous year.\23\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \21\Id.
    \22\Multi-State Info. Sharing & Analysis Ctr., Dep't of Homeland 
Sec., Nationwide Cybersecurity Review (2017), https://
www.cisecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/NCSR-2017-Final.pdf.
    \23\Id. at 7.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    In June 2016, DHS's Homeland Security Advisory Council, 
Cybersecurity Subcommittee also published a report examining 
DHS's coordination efforts with SLTT entities, and provided 
findings and recommendations focused on evolving these 
relationships.\24\ The report recommended DHS enhance its 
communication with SLTT governments on the availability of 
cybersecurity training focusing on political leadership. 
Additionally, the report recommended establishing stronger 
directives to ensure that all homeland security grant programs 
integrate cyber protections and cyber personnel recognizing 
that ``by requiring that a percentage of grant funding be spent 
on cybersecurity, DHS could make meaningful steps in increasing 
cybersecurity protections in all new technology 
purchases.''\25\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \24\Homeland Sec. Advisory Council, Dep't of Homeland Sec., Final 
Report to the Cybersecurity Subcommittee: Part II--State, Local, Tribal 
& Territorial 1 (2016), https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/
publications/HSAC_Cybersecurity_SLTT_FINAL_Report.pdf.
    \25\Id. at 11.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    S. 1846, the State and Local Government Cybersecurity Act 
of 2019, allows the Secretary to award grants to and enter into 
cooperative agreements and contracts with states, local 
governments, and non-Federal entities. Additionally, the bill 
requires that the NCCIC, in coordination with Federal and non-
Federal entities, such as the MS-ISAC, conduct exercises, 
provide operational and technical cybersecurity training to 
address cybersecurity risks or incidents, and provide, upon 
request, operational, technical, or material support to secure 
and ensure the resilience of Federal and non-Federal 
information and election systems.
    Finally, the bill would allow the Secretary, at the 
voluntary request of the non-Federal entity, to deploy 
technical or analytic capabilities or services utilizing 
classified cyber threat indicators or intelligence to detect or 
prevent malicious network traffic on unclassified non-Federal 
information systems. This provision augments DHS's Enhanced 
Cybersecurity Services (ECS) program, which is an intrusion 
prevention capability offered by the Department.\26\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \26\Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Sec. Agency, Enhanced 
Cybersecurity Services (ECS), https://www.dhs.gov/cisa/enhanced-
cybersecurity-services-ecs (last visited Aug. 6, 2019).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

                        III. Legislative History

    Ranking Member Peters (D-MI) introduced S. 1846 on June 13, 
2019, with Senator Rob Portman (R-OH). The bill was referred to 
the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs.
    The Committee considered S. 1846 at a business meeting on 
June 19, 2019. During the business meeting, an amendment was 
offered by Senators Peters and Portman making technical 
changes. The Committee ordered the bill, as amended, reported 
favorably by voice vote en bloc. Senators present for both the 
vote on the amendment and the bill as amended were: Johnson, 
Portman, Paul, Lankford, Romney, Scott, Enzi, Hawley, Peters, 
Carper, Hassan, Sinema, and Rosen.

        IV. Section-by-Section Anaylsis of the Bill, as Reported


Section 1. Short title

    This section would establish the bill may be cited as the 
``State and Local Government Cybersecurity Act of 2019.''

Section 2. Amendments to the Homeland Security Act of 2002

    Paragraph (1) amends Subtitle A of title XXII of the 
Homeland Security Act of 2002 to broaden the definition of the 
term ``entity'' to include domestic or foreign-owned 
associations, corporations, including for-profit and nonprofits 
corporations, partnerships, proprietorships, organizations, 
institutions, establishments, or individuals who are legally 
able to enter into agreements or contracts with the United 
States.
    Paragraph (2) allows the Secretary of the Department of 
Homeland Security (DHS) authority to make grants and enter into 
cooperative agreements or contracts with States, local 
governments, and other non-Federal entities to carry out the 
Secretary's responsibilities related to cybersecurity and 
infrastructure protection including providing assistance and 
education related to cyber threat indicators, defensive 
measures and cybersecurity technologies, cybersecurity risks, 
incidents, analysis, and warnings.
    Paragraph (3) directs the National Cybersecurity and 
Communications Integration Center (NCCIC) to coordinate with 
Federal and non-Federal agencies, through such organizations as 
the Multi-State Information Sharing and Analysis Center, to 
conduct exercises, provide operational and technical training, 
and share cyber threat indicators, if requested. Paragraph (3) 
also directs the NCCIC to provide notifications on incident and 
malware information specific to their customers and residents; 
provide and periodically update cybersecurity resources, 
standards, and best practices and procedures related to 
information security; work with Federal and non-Federal 
officials, including State and local Chief Information 
Officers, senior election officials, and national associations 
to secure and ensure the resilience of Federal and non-Federal 
information systems, including election systems; provide 
operational and technical assistance to detect cybersecurity 
risks and incidents, including through the deployment and 
sustainment of cybersecurity technologies, if requested; assist 
in the development of policies and procedures for the 
coordinated vulnerability disclosures; ensure awareness at the 
State and local level of DHS resources on information security 
for civilian information systems; promote cybersecurity 
education and awareness through engagement.
    Paragraph (3) also directs the Secretary to submit a report 
to the Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs 
Committee and the House Homeland Security Committee on the 
status of cybersecurity measures in place and any gaps that 
exist in each State and the largest urban areas of the United 
States.
    Paragraph (3) also authorizes the Secretary to establish an 
initiative to deploy capabilities or services using classified 
cyber threat indicators or intelligence to detect and prevent 
malicious traffic on unclassified non-Federal information 
systems. Participation in the initiative is voluntary and at 
the request of the non-Federal entity. This section also 
requires the Secretary to submit a report not later than one 
year after the establishment of the initiative containing an 
assessment of the status, the rate of participation, 
effectiveness, and recommendations for improvement of this 
program.

                   V. Evaluation of Regulatory Impact

    Pursuant to the requirements of paragraph 11(b) of rule 
XXVI of the Standing Rules of the Senate, the Committee has 
considered the regulatory impact of this bill and determined 
that the bill will have no regulatory impact within the meaning 
of the rules. The Committee agrees with the Congressional 
Budget Office's statement that the bill contains no 
intergovernmental or private-sector mandates as defined in the 
Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA) and would impose no costs 
on state, local, or tribal governments.

             VI. Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate

                                     U.S. Congress,
                               Congressional Budget Office,
                                     Washington, DC, July 19, 2019.
Hon. Ron Johnson,
Chairman, Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs,
U.S. Senate, Washington, DC.
    Dear Mr. Chairman: The Congressional Budget Office has 
prepared the enclosed cost estimate for S. 1846, the State and 
Local Cybersecurity Act of 2019.
    If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be 
pleased to provide them. The CBO staff contact is Aldo 
Prosperi.
            Sincerely,
                                         Phillip L. Swagel,
                                                          Director.
    Enclosure.

    
    

    No S. 1846 would authorize the Department of Homeland 
Security (DHS) to continue to coordinate with state and local 
governments to enhance the cybersecurity of their information 
systems. Under the bill, the DHS National Cybersecurity and 
Communications Integration Center (NCCIC) would continue to 
provide assistance to state and local governments including 
conducting cybersecurity exercises, providing training, and 
notifying them of cybersecurity threats. The bill also would 
authorize DHS to implement an initiative to help state and 
local governments detect and prevent malicious network traffic 
on nonfederal information systems. Those governments could 
choose not to participate in that initiative.
    The NCCIC is already performing most of the coordination 
activities authorized in S. 1846. Implementing the voluntary 
initiative would require hiring additional cybersecurity 
advisors, deploying sensors to nonfederal networks, and sharing 
classified information on cybersecurity threats with state and 
local partners. Using information from DHS, CBO expects that 
implementing the provision would require, on average, 15 full-
time equivalent employees in each year beginning in 2020, at an 
average annual rate of about $150,000 per employee. On the 
basis of similar programs, CBO also expects that deploying 
sensors to state and local governments and sharing classified 
cybersecurity threats at an unclassified level would cost $20 
million. In total, CBO estimates that enacting S. 1846 would 
cost $31 million over the 2019-2024 period (see Table 1). Such 
spending would be subject to availability of appropriated 
funds.

                TABLE 1.--ESTIMATED INCREASES IN SPENDING SUBJECT TO APPROPRIATION UNDER S. 1846
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                    By fiscal year, millions of dollars--
                                                            ----------------------------------------------------
                                                              2019   2020   2021   2022   2023   2024  2019-2024
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Estimated Authorization....................................      0     21      1      3      3      4        32
Estimated Outlays..........................................      0     20      1      3      3      4        31
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The CBO staff contact for this estimate is Aldo Prosperi. 
The estimate was reviewed by Leo Lex, Deputy Assistant Director 
for Budget Analysis.

       VII. Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported

    In compliance with paragraph 12 of rule XXVI of the 
Standing Rules of the Senate, the following changes in existing 
law made by the bill, as reported, are shown as follows: 
(existing law proposed to be omitted is enclosed in black 
brackets, new matter is printed in italic, existing law in 
which no change is proposed is shown in roman):

HOMELAND SECURITY ACT OF 2002

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


TITLE XXII--CYBERSECURITY AND INFRASTRUCTURE SECURITY AGENCY

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


Subtitle A--Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *



SEC. 2201. DEFINITIONS.

          (1) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

          (4) Entity.--The term ``entity'' shall include--
                  (A) an association, corporation, whether for-
                profit or nonprofit, partnership, 
                proprietorship, organization, institution, 
                establishment, or individual, whether 
                domestically or foreign owned, that has the 
                legal capacity to enter into agreements or 
                contracts, assume obligations, incur and pay 
                debts, sue and be sued in its own right in a 
                court of competent jurisdiction in the United 
                States, and to be held responsible for its 
                actions;
                  (B) a governmental agency or other 
                governmental entity, including State, local, 
                Tribal, and territorial government entities; 
                and
                  (C) the general public.
          [(4)] (5) * * *
          [(5)] (6) * * *
          [(6)] (7) * * *

SEC. 2202. CYBERSECURITY AND INFRASTRUCTURE SECURITY AGENCY.

    (a) * * *
    (b) * * *
    (c) Responsibilities.--The Director shall--
          (1) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

          (10) carry out cybersecurity, infrastructure 
        security, and emergency communications stakeholder 
        outreach and engagement and coordinate that outreach 
        and engagement with critical infrastructure Sector-
        Specific Agencies, as appropriate; [and]
          (11) carry out the authority of the Secretary under 
        subsection (e)(1)(R); and
          [(11)] (12) carry out such other duties and powers 
        prescribed by law or delegated by the Secretary.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (e) Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Authorities 
of the Secretary.--
          (1) In general.--The responsibilities of the 
        Secretary relating to cybersecurity and infrastructure 
        security shall include the following:
                  (A) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

                  (R) To make grants to and enter into 
                cooperative agreements or contracts with 
                States, local governments, and other non-
                Federal entities as the Secretary determines 
                necessary to carry out the responsibilities of 
                the Secretary related to cybersecurity and 
                infrastructure security under this Act and any 
                other provision of law, including grants, 
                cooperative agreements, and contracts that 
                provide assistance and education related to 
                cyber threat indicators, defensive measures and 
                cybersecurity technologies, cybersecurity 
                risks, incidents, analysis, and warnings.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SEC. 2209. NATIONAL CYBERSECURITY AND COMMUNICATIONS INTEGRATION 
                    CENTER.

    (a) * * *
    (b) * * *
    (c) Functions.--The cybersecurity functions of the Center 
shall include--
          (1) ** * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

          (6) upon request, providing timely operational and 
        technical assistance, risk management support, and 
        incident response capabilities to Federal and non-
        Federal entities with respect to cyber threat 
        indicators, defensive measures, cybersecurity risks, 
        and incidents, which may include attribution, 
        mitigation, and remediation;

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (d) Composition.--
          (1) In general.--The Center shall be composed of--
                  (A) appropriate representatives of Federal 
                entities, such as--

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

                  (E) an entity that collaborates with State 
                and local government, including an entity that 
                collaborates with election officials, on 
                cybersecurity risks and incidents, and has 
                entered into a voluntary information sharing 
                relationship with the Center; and

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (n) Coordination on Cybersecurity for Federal and Non-
Federal Entities.--
          (1) Coordination.--The Center shall, to the extent 
        practicable, and in coordination as appropriate with 
        Federal and non-Federal entities, such as the Multi-
        State Information Sharing and Analysis Center--
                  (A) conduct exercises with Federal and non-
                Federal entities;
                  (B) provide operational and technical 
                cybersecurity training related to cyber threat 
                indicators, defensive measures, cybersecurity 
                risks, and incidents to Federal and non-Federal 
                entities to address cybersecurity risks or 
                incidents, with or without reimbursement;
                  (C) assist Federal and non-Federal entities, 
                upon request, in sharing cyber threat 
                indicators, defensive measures, cybersecurity 
                risks, and incidents from and to the Federal 
                Government as well as among Federal and non-
                Federal entities, in order to increase 
                situational awareness and help prevent 
                incidents;
                  (D) provide notifications containing specific 
                incident and malware information that may 
                affect them or their customers and residents;
                  (E) provide and periodically update via a web 
                portal and other means tools, products, 
                resources, policies, guidelines, controls, and 
                other cybersecurity standards and best 
                practices and procedures related to information 
                security;
                  (F) work with senior Federal and non-Federal 
                officials, including State and local Chief 
                Information Officers, senior election 
                officials, and through national associations, 
                to coordinate a nationwide effort to ensure 
                effective implementation of tools, products, 
                resources, policies, guidelines, controls, and 
                procedures related to information security to 
                secure and ensure the resiliency of Federal and 
                non-Federal information systems and including 
                election systems;
                  (G) provide, upon request, operational and 
                technical assistance to Federal and non-Federal 
                entities to implement tools, products, 
                resources, policies, guidelines, controls, and 
                procedures on information security, including 
                by, as appropriate, deploying and sustaining 
                cybersecurity technologies, such as an 
                intrusion detection capability, to assist those 
                Federal and non-Federal entities in detecting 
                cybersecurity risks and incidents;
                  (H) assist Federal and non-Federal entities 
                in developing policies and procedures for 
                coordinating vulnerability disclosures, to the 
                extent practicable, consistent with 
                international and national standards in the 
                information technology industry;
                  (I) ensure that Federal and non-Federal 
                entities, as appropriate, are made aware of the 
                tools, products, resources, policies, 
                guidelines, controls, and procedures on 
                information security developed by the 
                Department and other appropriate Federal 
                departments and agencies for ensuring the 
                security and resiliency of civilian information 
                systems; and
                  (J) promote cybersecurity education and 
                awareness through engagements with Federal and 
                non-Federal entities.
    (o) Report.--Not later than 1 year after the date of 
enactment of this subsection, and every 2 years thereafter, the 
Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Homeland Security 
and Governmental Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on 
Homeland Security of the House of Representatives a report on 
the status of cybersecurity measures that are in place, and any 
gaps that exist, in each State and in the largest urban areas 
of the United States.
    (p) Deployment of Enhanced Capabilities.--
          (1) Establishment.--Not later than 180 days after the 
        date of enactment of this subsection, the Secretary may 
        establish an initiative to enhance efforts to deploy 
        technical or analytic capabilities or services that 
        utilize classified threat indicators or intelligence 
        for the purpose of detecting or preventing malicious 
        network traffic on unclassified non-Federal information 
        systems.
          (2) Voluntary participation.--Activities conducted 
        under this subsection may only be carried out on a 
        voluntary basis upon request of the non-Federal entity.
          (3) Report.--Not later than 1 year after the date on 
        which the Secretary establishes the initiative under 
        this subsection, the Secretary shall submit to the 
        Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs 
        of the Senate and the Committee on Homeland Security of 
        the House of Representatives a report on the 
        initiative, which shall include--
                  (A) the status of the initiative;
                  (B) the rate of voluntary participation in 
                the initiative;
                  (C) the effectiveness of the initiative; and 
                (D) recommendations for expanding the use of 
                classified cyber threat indicators to protect 
                non-Federal entities.