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[Senate Treaty Document 106-29]
[From the U.S. Government Publishing Office]

106th Congress                                              Treaty Doc.
 2d Session                                                   106-29







                        ZAGREB ON JULY 13, 1996

 May 23, 2000.--Treaty was read the first time, and together with the 
accompanying papers, referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations and 
            ordered to be printed for the use of the Senate


79-118                     WASHINGTON : 2000

                         LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


                                     The White House, May 23, 2000.
To the Senate of the United States:
    With a view to receiving the advice and consent of the 
Senate to ratification, I transmit herewith the Treaty Between 
the Government of the United States of America and the 
Government of the Republic of Croatia Concerning the 
Encouragement and Reciprocal Protection of Investment, with 
Annex and Protocol, signed at Zagreb on July 13, 1996. I 
transmit also, for the information of the Senate, the report of 
the Department of State with respect to this Treaty.
    The bilateral investment treaty (BIT) with Croatia was the 
fourth such treaty between the United States and a Southeastern 
European country. The Treaty will protect U.S. investment and 
assist Croatia in its efforts to develop its economy by 
creating conditions more favorable for U.S. private investment 
and thus strengthen the development of its private sector.
    The Treaty is fully consistent with U.S. policy toward 
international and domestic investment. A specific tenet of U.S. 
policy, reflected in this Treaty, is that U.S. investment 
abroad and foreign investment in the United States should 
receive national treatment. Under this Treaty, the Parties also 
agree to customary international law standards for 
expropriation. The Treaty includes detailed provisions 
regarding the computation and payment of prompt, adequate, and 
effective compensation for expropriation; free transfer of 
funds related to investments; freedom of investments from 
specified performance requirements; fair, equitable, and most-
favored-nation treatment; and the investor's freedom to choose 
to resolve disputes with the host government through 
international arbitration.
    I recommend that the Senate consider this Treaty as soon as 
possible, and give its advice and consent to ratification of 
the Treaty at an early date.

                                                William J. Clinton.

                          LETTER OF SUBMITTAL


                                       Department of State,
                                           Washington, May 3, 2000.
    The President: I have the honor to submit to you the Treaty 
Between the Government of the United States of America and the 
Government of the Republic of Croatia Concerning the 
Encouragement and Reciprocal Protection of Investment, with 
Annex and Protocol, signed at Zagreb on July 13, 1996. I 
recommend that this Treaty, with Annex and Protocol, be 
transmitted to the Senate for its advice and consent to 
    The bilateral investment treaty (BIT) with Croatia was the 
fifteenth such treaty signed between the United States and a 
country of Central or Eastern Europe. The Treaty is based on 
the view that an open investment policy contributes to economic 
growth. This Treaty will assist Croatia in its efforts to 
develop its economy by creating conditions more favorable for 
U.S. private investment and thereby strengthening the 
development of its private sector. It is U.S. policy, however, 
to advise potential treaty partners during BIT negotiations 
that conclusion of such a treaty does not necessarily result in 
increases in private U.S. investment flows.
    To date, 31 BITs are in force for the United States--with 
Albania, Argentina, Armenia, Bangladesh, Bulgaria, Cameroon, 
the Republic of the Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo 
(formerly Zaire), the Czech Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Estonia, 
Georgia, Grenada, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, 
Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Panama, Poland, Romania, Senegal, 
Slovakia, Sri Lanka, Trinidad & Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, and 
Ukraine. In addition to the Treaty with Croatia, the United 
States has signed, but not yet brought into force, BITs with 
Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Belarus, Bolivia, El Salvador, Honduras, 
Jordan, Lithuania, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Russia, and 
    The Office of the United States Trade Representative and 
the Department of State jointly led this BIT negotiation, with 
assistance from the Departments of Commerce and Treasury.

                        the u.s.-croatia treaty

    The Treaty with Croatia is based on the 1994 U.S. prototype 
BIT and satisfies the U.S. principal objectives in bilateral 
investment treaty negotiations:
          --All forms of U.S. investment in the territory of 
        Croatia are covered.
          --Covered investments receive the better of national 
        treatment or most-favored-nation (MFN) treatment both 
        while they are being established and thereafter, 
        subject to certain specified exceptions.
          --Specified performance requirements may not be 
        imposed upon or enforced against covered investments.
          --Expropriation is permitted only in accordance with 
        customary international law standards.
          --Parties are obligated to permit the transfer, in a 
        freely usable currency, of all funds related to a 
        covered investment, subject to exceptions for specified 
          --Investment disputes with the host government may be 
        brought by investors, or by their covered investments, 
        to binding international arbitration as an alternative 
        to domestic courts.
    These elements are further described in the following 
article-by-article analysis of the provisions of the Treaty:

Title and Preamble

    The Title and Preamble state the goals of the Treaty. 
Foremost is the encouragement and protection of investment. 
Other goals include economic cooperation on investment issues; 
the stimulation of economic development; higher living 
standards; promotion of respect for internationally-recognized 
worker rights; and maintenance of health, safety, and 
environmental measures. While the Preamble does not impose 
binding obligations, its statement of goals may assist in 
interpreting the Treaty and in defining the scope of Party-to-
Party consultations pursuant to Article IX.

Article I (Definitions)

    Article I defines terms used throughout the Treaty.
            Company, Company of a Party
    The definition of ``company'' is broad, covering all types 
of legal entities constituted or organized under applicable 
law, and includes corporations, trusts, partnerships, sole 
proprietorships, branches, joint ventures, and associations. 
The definition explicitly covers not-for-profit entities, as 
well as entities that are owned or controlled by the state. 
``Company of a Party'' is defined as a company constituted or 
organized under the laws of that Party.
    The Treaty defines ``national of a Party'' (hereinafter 
``national'') as a natural person who is a national of a Party 
under its own laws. Under U.S. law, the term ``national'' is 
broader than the term ``citizen.'' For example, a native of 
American Samoa is a national of the United States, but not a 
            Investment, Covered Investment
    The Treaty's definition of investment is broad, recognizing 
that investment can take a wide variety of forms. Every kind of 
investment is specifically incorporated in the definition; 
moreover, it is explicitly noted that investment may consist or 
take the form of any of a number of interests, claims, and 
rights. The Treaty provides that any change in the form of an 
investment does not affect its character as an investment.
    The Treaty provides an illustrative list of the forms an 
investment may take. Establishing a subsidiary is a common way 
of making an investment. Other forms that an investment might 
take include equity and debt interests in a company; 
contractual rights; tangible, intangible, and intellectual 
property; and rights conferred pursuant to law, such as 
licenses and permits. Investment as defined by the Treaty 
generally excludes claims arising solely from trade 
transactions, such as a sale of goods across a border that does 
not otherwise involve an investment.
    The Treaty defines ``covered investment'' as an investment 
of a national or company of a Party in the territory of the 
other Party. An investment of a national or company is one that 
the national or company owns or controls, either directly or 
indirectly. Indirect ownership or control could be through 
other, intermediate companies or persons, including those of 
third countries. Control is not specifically defined in the 
Treaty; ownership of over 50 percent of the voting stock of a 
company would normally convey control, but in many cases the 
requirement could be satisfied by less than that proportion, or 
by other arrangements.
    The broad nature of the definitions of ``investment,'' 
``company,'' and ``company of a Party'' means that investments 
can be covered by the Treaty even if ultimate control lies with 
non-Party nationals. A Party may, however, deny the benefits of 
the Treaty in the limited circumstances described in Article 
            State Enterprise, Investment Authorization, Investment 
    The Treaty defines ``State enterprise'' as a company owned, 
or controlled through ownership interests, by a Party. Purely 
regulatory control over a company does not qualify it as a 
state enterprise.
    The Treaty defines an ``investment authorization'' as an 
authorization granted by the foreign investment authority of a 
Party to a covered investment or a national or company of the 
other Party.
    The Treaty defines an ``investment agreement'' as a written 
agreement between the national authorities of a Party and a 
covered investment or a national or company of the other Party 
that (1) grants rights with respect to natural resources or 
other assets controlled by the national authorities and (2) the 
investment, national, or company relies upon in establishing or 
acquiring a covered investment. This definition thus excludes 
agreements with subnational authorities (including U.S. States) 
as well as agreements arising from various types of regulatory 
activities of the national government, including, in the tax 
area, rulings, closing agreements, and advance pricing 
            ICSID Convention, Centre, UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules
    The ``ICSID Convention,'' ``Centre,'' and ``UNCITRAL 
Arbitration Rules'' are explicitly defined to make the text 
brief and clear.
    A definition of ``territory'' was included at the request 
of Croatia. The Treaty defines ``territory'' as the territory 
of the United States or Croatia.including the territorial sea 
established in accordance with international law as reflected in the 
1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. The definition 
also applies, in accordance with international law as reflected in that 
convention, to the seas, subsoil, and seabed adjacent to the 
territorial sea in which either the United States or Croatia has 
sovereign rights or jurisdiction.

Article II (Treatment of Investment)

    Article II contains the Treaty's major obligations with 
respect to the treatment of covered investments.
    Paragraph 1 generally ensures the better of national or MFN 
treatment in both the entry and post-entry phases of 
investment. It thus prohibits, outside of exceptions listed in 
the Annex, ``screening'' on the basis of nationality during the 
investment process, as well as nationally-based post-
establishment measures. For purposes of the Treaty, ``national 
treatment'' means treatment no less favorable than that which a 
Party accords, in like situation, to investments in its 
territory of its own nationals or companies. For purposes of 
the Treaty, ``MFN treatment'' means treatment no less favorable 
than that which a Party accords, in like situations, to 
investments in its territory of nationals or companies of a 
third country. The Treaty obliges each Party to provide 
whichever of national treatment or MFN treatment is the most 
favorable. This is defined by the Treaty as ``national and MFN 
treatment.'' Paragraph 1 explicitly states that the national 
and MFN treatment obligation will extend to state enterprises 
in their provision of goods and services to covered 
    Paragraph 2 states that each Party may adopt or maintain 
exceptions to the national and MFN treatment standard with 
respect to the sectors or matters specified in the Annex. 
Further restrictive measures are permitted in each sector. (The 
specific exceptions are discussed in the section entitled 
``Annex'' below.) In the Annex, Parties may take exceptions 
only to the obligation to provide national and MFN treatment; 
there are no sectoral exceptions to the rest of the Treaty's 
obligations. Finally, in adopting any exception under this 
provision, a Party may not require the divestment of a 
preexisting covered investment.
    Paragraph 2 also states that a Party is not required to 
extend to covered investments national and MFN treatment with 
respect to procedures provided for in multilateral agreements 
concluded under the auspices of the World Intellectual Property 
Organization relating to the acquisition or maintenance of 
intellectual property rights. This provision clarifies that 
certain procedural preferences granted under intellectual 
property conventions, such as the Patent Cooperation Treaty, 
fall outside the BIT. This exception parallels those in the 
Uruguay Round's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of 
Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and the North American 
Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
    Paragraph 3 sets out a minimum standard of treatment based 
on standards found in customary international law. The 
obligations to accord ``fair and equitable treatment'' and 
``full protection and security'' are explicitly cited, as is 
each Party's obligation not to impair, through unreasonable and 
discriminatory means, the management, conduct, operation, and 
sale or other disposition of covered investments. The general 
reference to international law also implicitly incorporates 
other fundamental rules of customary international law 
regarding the treatment of foreign investment. However, this 
provision does not incorporate obligations based on other 
international agreements.
    Paragraph 4 requires that each Party provide effective 
means of asserting claims and enforcing rights with respect to 
covered investments.
    Paragraph 5 ensures the transparency of each Party's 
regulations of covered investments.

Article III (Expropriation)

    Article III incorporates into the Treaty customary 
international law standards for expropriation. Article III also 
includes detailed provisions regarding the computation and 
payment of prompt, adequate, and effective compensation.
    Paragraph 1 describes the obligations of the Parties with 
respect to expropriation and nationalization of a covered 
investment. These obligations apply to both direct 
expropriation and indirect expropriation through measures 
``tantamount to expropriation or nationalization'' and thus 
apply to ``creeping expropriations''--a series of measures 
thateffectively amounts to an expropriation of a covered investment 
without taking title.
    Paragraph 1 further bars all expropriations or 
nationalizations except those that are for a public purpose; 
carried out in a non-discriminatory manner; in accordance with 
due process of law; in accordance with the general principles 
of treatment provided in Article II(3); and subject to 
``prompt, adequate and effective compensation.''
    Paragraphs 2, 3, and 4 more fully describe the meaning of 
``prompt, adequate and effective compensation.'' The guiding 
principle is that the investor should be made whole.

Article IV (Compensation for Damages Due to War and Similar Events)

    Paragraph 1 entitles investments covered by the Treaty to 
national and MFN treatment with respect to any measure relating 
to losses suffered in a Party's territory owing to war or other 
armed conflict, civil disturbances, or similar events. 
Paragraph 2, by contrast, creates an unconditional obligation 
to pay compensation for such losses when the losses result from 
requisitioning or from destruction not required by the 
necessity of the situation.

Article V (Subrogation)

    Article V of the Treaty protects a Party or designated 
agency's rights and claims under any indemnity, guarantee, or 
contract of insurance given by that Party (or designated 
agency) for a covered investment by requiring the other Party 
to recognize the assignment to the Party or its designated 
agency of any right or claim of an indemnified national or 
company. The Party (or designated agency) is entitled to the 
same treatment with respect to those rights and claims acquired 
by it through assignment. The Party (or its designated agency) 
is also entitled to any payments received in pursuance of those 
rights or claims.
    Provisions of this type are generally included in separate 
bilateral OPIC agreements. Croatia requested the addition to 
the Treaty of an article on subrogation so as to have a mutual 
agreement in place should Croatia create an agency equivalent 
to OPIC in the future. The terms of Article V were drafted by 
the United States, based on its standard OPIC agreements.

Article VI (Transfers)

    Article VI protects investors from certain government 
exchange controls that limit current and capital account 
transfers, as well as limits on inward transfers made by 
screening authorities and, in certain circumstances, limits on 
returns in kind.
    In paragraph 1, each Party agrees to ``permit all transfers 
relating to a covered investment to be made freely and without 
delay into and out of its territory.'' Paragraph 1 also 
provides a list of transfers that must be allowed. The list is 
non-exclusive, and is intended to protect flows to both 
affiliated and non-affiliated entities.
    Paragraph 2 provides that each Party must permit transfers 
to be made in a ``freely usable currency'' at the market rate 
of exchange prevailing on the date of transfer. ``Freely 
usable'' is a term used by the International Monetary Fund; at 
present there are five ``freely usable'' currencies: the U.S. 
dollar, Japanese yen, German mark, French franc, and British 
pound sterling.
    In paragraph 3, each Party agrees to permit returns in kind 
to be made where such returns have been authorized by an 
investment authorization or written agreement between a Party 
and a covered investment or a national or company of the other 
    Paragraph 4 recognizes that, notwithstanding the 
obligations of paragraphs 1 through 3, a Party may prevent a 
transfer through the equitable, non-discriminatory, and good 
faith application of laws relating to bankruptcy, insolvency, 
or the protection of the rights of creditors; securities; 
criminal or penal offenses; or ensuring compliance with orders 
or judgments in adjudicatory proceedings.

Article VII (Performance Requirements)

    Article VII prohibits either Party from mandating or 
enforcing specified performance requirements as a condition for 
the establishment, acquisition, expansion, management, conduct, 
or operation of a covered investment. The list of prohibited 
requirements is exhaustive and covers domestic content 
requirements and domestic purchase preferences, the 
``balancing'' of imports or sales in relation to exports or 
foreign exchange earnings, requirements to export products or 
services, technology transfer requirements,and requirements 
relating to the conduct of research and development in the host 
country. Such requirements are major burdens on investors and impair 
their competitiveness.
    The last sentence of Article VII makes clear that a Party 
may, however, impose conditions for the receipt or continued 
receipt of benefits and incentives.

Article VIII (Entry, Sojourn, and Employment of Aliens)

    Paragraph 1 requires each Party to allow, subject to its 
laws relating to the entry and sojourn of aliens, the entry 
into its territory of the other Party's nationals for certain 
purposes related to a covered investment and involving the 
commitment of a ``substantial amount of capital.'' This 
paragraph serves to render nationals of Croatia eligible for 
treaty-investor visas under U.S. immigration law. It also 
affords similar treatment for U.S. nationals entering Croatia. 
The requirement to commit a ``substantial amount of capital'' 
is intended to prevent abuse of treaty-investor status; it 
parallels the requirements of U.S. immigration law.
    In addition, paragraph 1(b) prohibits labor certification 
requirements and numerical restrictions on the entry of treaty-
    Paragraph 2 requires that each Party allow covered 
investments to engage top managerial personnel of their choice, 
regardless of nationality. This provision does not require that 
such personnel be granted entry into a Party's territory. Such 
persons must independently qualify for an appropriate visa for 
entry into the territory of the other party. Nor does this 
provision create an exception to U.S. equal employment 
opportunity laws.

Article IX (State-State Consultations)

    Article IX provides for prompt consultation between the 
Parties, at either Party's request, on any matter relating to 
the interpretation or application of the Treaty or to the 
realization of the Treaty's objectives. A Party may thus 
request consultations for any matter reasonably related to the 
encouragement or protection of covered investment, whether or 
not a Party is alleging a violation of the Treaty.

Article X (Settlement of Disputes Between One Party and a National or 
        Company of the Other Party)

    Article X sets forth several means by which disputes 
brought against a Party by an investor (specifically, a 
national or company of the other Party) may be resolved.
    Article X procedures apply to an ``investment dispute,'' 
which is any dispute arising out of or relating to an 
investment authorization, an investment agreement, or an 
alleged breach of rights conferred, created, or recognized by 
the Treaty with respect to a covered investment. The Treaty 
provides that the parties to the dispute should initially seek 
a resolution through consultation and negotiation.
    In the event that an investment dispute cannot be settled 
amicably, paragraph 2 gives an investor an exclusive (with the 
exception in paragraph 3(b) concerning injunctive relief, 
explained below) choice among three options to settle the 
dispute. These three options are: (1) submitting the dispute to 
the courts or administrative tribunals of the Party that is a 
party to the dispute; (2) invoking dispute-resolution 
procedures previously agreed upon by the national or company 
and the host country government; or (3) invoking the dispute-
resolution mechanisms identified in paragraph 3 of Article X.
    Under paragraph 3(a), the investor can submit an investment 
dispute to binding arbitration 3 months after the dispute 
arises, provided that the investor has not submitted the claim 
to a court or administrative tribunal of the Party or invoked a 
dispute resolution procedure previously agreed upon. The 
investor may choose among the International Centre for 
Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) (Convention 
Arbitration), the Additional Facility of ICSID (if Convention 
Arbitration is not available), ad hoc arbitration using the 
Arbitration Rules of the United Nations Commission on 
International Trade Law (UNCITRAL), or any other arbitral 
institution or rules agreed upon by both parties to the 
    Before or during such arbitral proceedings, however, 
paragraph 3(b) provides that an investor may seek, without 
affecting its right to pursue arbitration under this Treaty, 
interim injunctive relief not involving the payment of damages 
from local courts or administrative tribunals of the Party that 
is a party to the dispute for the preservation of its rights 
and interests. This paragraph does not alter the power ofthe 
arbitral tribunals to recommend or order interim measures they may deem 
    Paragraph 4 constitutes each Party's consent to the 
submission of investment disputes to binding arbitration in 
accordance with the choice of the investor.
    Paragraph 5 provides that any non-ICSID Convention 
arbitration shall take place in a country that is a party to 
the United Nations Convention on the Recognition and 
Enforcement of Arbitral Awards. This provision facilitates 
enforcement of arbitral awards.
    In addition, in paragraph 6, each Party commits to 
enforcing arbitral awards rendered pursuant to this Article. 
The Treaty also provides that each Party's enforcement of an 
arbitral award in its territory will be governed by its 
national law. This additional provision merely confirms that 
since each Party must fully enforce all arbitral awards as 
provided in the Treaty, the means of doing so is through each 
Party's domestic law. The Federal Arbitration Act (9 U.S.C. 1 
et seq.) satisfies the requirement for the enforcement of non-
ICSID Convention awards in the United States. The Convention on 
the Settlement of Investment Disputes Act of 1966 (22 U.S.C. 
1650-1650a) provides for the enforcement of ICSID Convention 
awards in the United States.
    Paragraph 7 ensures that a Party may not assert as a 
defense, or for any other reason, that the investor involved in 
the investment dispute has received or will receive 
reimbursement for the same damages under an insurance or 
guarantee contract.
    Paragraph 8 provides that, for the purposes of this 
article, the nationality of a company in the host country will 
be determined by ownership or control, rather than by place of 
incorporation. This provision allows a company that is a 
covered investment to bring a claim in its own name.

Article XI (Settlement of Disputes Between the Parties)

    Article XI provides for binding arbitration of disputes 
between the United States and Croatia concerning the 
interpretation or application of the Treaty that are not 
resolved through consultations or other diplomatic channels. 
The article specifies various procedural aspects of such 
arbitration proceedings, including time periods, selection of 
arbitrators, and distribution of arbitration costs between the 
Parties. The article constitutes each Party's prior consent to 
such arbitration.

Article XII (Preservation of Rights)

    Article XII clarifies that the Treaty does not derogate 
from any obligation a Party might have to provide better 
treatment to the covered investment than is specified in the 
Treaty. Thus, the Treaty establishes a floor for the treatment 
of covered investments. A covered investment may be entitled to 
more favorable treatment through domestic legislation, other 
international legal obligations, or a specific obligation 
(e.g., to provide a tax holiday) assumed by a Party with 
respect to that covered investment.

Article XIII (Denial of Benefits)

    Article XIII(a) preserves the right of each Party to deny 
the benefits of the Treaty to a company owned or controlled by 
nationals of a non-Party country with which the denying Party 
does not have normal economic or diplomatic relations, e.g., a 
country to which it is applying economic sanctions. For 
example, at this time the United States does not maintain 
normal economic relations with, among other countries, Cuba and 
    Article XIII(b) permits each Party to deny the benefits of 
the Treaty to a company of the other Party if the company is 
owned or controlled by non-Party nationals and if the company 
has no substantial business activities in the Party where it is 
established. Thus, the United States could deny benefits to a 
company that is a subsidiary of a shell company organized under 
the laws of Croatia if controlled by nationals of a third 
country. However, this provision would not generally permit the 
United States to deny benefits to a company of Croatia that 
maintains its central administration or principal place of 
business in the territory of, or has a real and continuous link 
with, Croatia.

Article XIV (Taxation)

    Article XIV excludes tax matters generally from the 
coverage of the BIT, on the basis that tax matters should be 
dealt with in bilateral tax treaties. However, Article XIV does 
not preclude a national or company from bringing claims under 
article X that taxation provisions in a investment agreement 
orauthorization have been violated. In addition, the dispute settlement 
provisions of Article X and XI apply to tax matters in relation to 
alleged violations of the BIT's expropriation article.
    Under paragraph 2, a national or company that asserts in a 
dispute that a tax matter involves expropriation may submit 
that dispute to arbitration pursuant to Article X(3) only if 
(1) the investor has first referred to the competent tax 
authorities of both Parties the issue of whether the tax matter 
involves an expropriation, and (2) the tax authorities have not 
both determined, within 9 months from the time of referral, 
that the matter does not involve an expropriation. The 
``competent tax authority'' of the United States is the 
Assistant Secretary of the Treasury for Tax Policy, who will 
make such a determination only after consultation with the 
Inter-Agency Staff Coordinating Group on Expropriations.

Article XV (Measures Not Precluded)

    The first paragraph of Article XV reserves the right of a 
Party to take measures for the fulfillment of its international 
obligations with respect to maintenance or restoration of 
international peace or security, as well as those measures it 
regards as necessary for the protection of its own essential 
security interests.
    International obligations with respect to maintenance or 
restoration of peace or security would include, for example, 
obligations arising out of Chapter VII of the United Nations 
Charter. Measures permitted by the provision on the protection 
of a Party's essential security interests would include 
security-related actions taken in time of war or national 
emergency. Actions not arising from a state of war or national 
emergency must have a clear and direct relationship to the 
essential security interests of the Party involved. Measures to 
protect a Party's essential security interests are self-judging 
in nature, although each Party would expect the provisions to 
be applied by the other in good faith.
    The second paragraph permits a Party to prescribe special 
formalities in connection with covered investments, provided 
that these formalities do not impair the substance of any 
Treaty rights. Such formalities could include reporting 
requirements for covered investments or for transfers of funds, 
or incorporation requirements.

Article XVI (Application to Political Subdivisions and State 
        Enterprises of the Parties)

    Paragraph 1(a) makes clear that the obligations of the 
Treaty are applicable to all political subdivisions of the 
Parties, such as provincial, State, and local governments.
    Paragraph 1(b) recognizes that under the U.S. federal 
system, States of the United States may, in some instances, 
treat out-of-State residents and corporations in a different 
manner than they treat in-State residents and corporations. The 
Treaty provides that the national treatment commitment, with 
respect to the States, means treatment no less favorable than 
that provided by a State to U.S. out-of-State residents and 
    Paragraph 2 extends a Party's obligations under the Treaty 
to its state enterprises in the exercise of any delegated 
governmental authority. This paragraph is designed to clarify 
that the exercise of governmental authority by a state 
enterprise must be consistent with a Party's obligations under 
the Treaty.

Article XVII (Entry Into Force, Duration, and Termination)

    Paragraph 1 stipulates that the Treaty enters into force 30 
days after exchange of instruments of ratification through 
diplomatic channels. The Treaty remains in force for a period 
of 10 years and continues in force thereafter unless terminated 
by either Party as provided in paragraph 2. Paragraph 2 permits 
a Party to terminate the Treaty at the end of the initial 10 
year period, or at any later time, by giving 1 year's written 
notice through diplomatic channels to the other Party. 
Paragraph 1 also provides that the Treaty applies to covered 
investments existing at the time of entry into force as well as 
to those established or acquired thereafter. The Protocol to 
the Treaty confirms the Parties' mutual understanding that the 
provisions of the Treaty do not bind either Party in relation 
to any act or fact that took place or any situation that ceased 
to exist before entry into force of the Treaty. This provision 
thus explicitly states the standard under customary 
international law that applies in the absence of the Parties' 
express intent to apply the treaty retroactively.
    Paragraph 3 provides that, if the Treaty is terminated, all 
investments that qualified as covered investments on the date 
of termination (i.e., 1 year after the date of written notice 
of termination) continue to be protected under the Treaty for 
10 years from that date as long as these investments qualify as 
covered investments. A Party's obligations with respect to the 
establishment and acquisition of investments would lapse 
immediately upon the date of termination of the Treaty.
    Paragraph 4 stipulates that the Annex and Protocol shall 
form an integral part of the Treaty.


    U.S. bilateral investment treaties allow for exceptions to 
national and MFN treatment, where the Parties' domestic regimes 
do not afford national and MFN treatment, or where treatment in 
certain sectors or matters is negotiated in and governed by 
other agreements. Future derogations from the national 
treatment obligations of the Treaty are generally permitted 
only in the sectors or matters listed in the Annex, pursuant to 
Article II(2), and must be made on an MFN basis unless 
otherwise specified therein.
    Under a number of statutes, many of which have a long 
historical background, the U.S. federal government or States 
may not necessarily treat investments of nationals or companies 
of Croatia as they do U.S. investments or investments from a 
third country. Paragraph 1 through 3 of the Annex list the 
sectors or matters subject to U.S. exceptions.
    The U.S. exceptions from its national treatment obligation 
are: atomic energy; customhouse brokers; licenses for 
broadcast, common carrier, or aeronautical radio stations; 
COMSAT; subsidies or grants, including government-supported 
loans, guarantees, and insurance; State and local measures 
exempt from Article 1102 of the North American Free Trade 
Agreement pursuant to Article 1108 thereof; and landing of 
submarine cables.
    The U.S. exceptions from its national and MFN treatment 
obligation are: fisheries; air and maritime transport, and 
related activities.
    During negotiations, the United States informed Croatia 
that if Croatia undertook acceptable commitments with respect 
to all or certain financial services, the United States would 
consider limiting its exceptions with respect to its national 
and MFN treatment obligation in financial services.
    Croatia offered to take no exceptions to the treaty's 
national or MFN treatment obligations with respect to banking, 
insurance, securities, and other financial services. Therefore 
in paragraph 3 of the Annex, the United States has limited its 
exceptions with respect to banking, insurance, securities, and 
other financial services to afford treatment no less favorable 
than that accorded with respect to Canada and Mexico in the 
North American Free Trade Agreement.
    Paragraphs 4 of the Annex lists Croatia's exceptions to its 
national treatment obligation, which are: ownership and 
operation of broadcast or common carrier radio and television 
stations; the provision of common carrier telephone and 
telegraph services; the provision of submarine cable services; 
and subsidies or grants, including government supported loans;
    Paragraph 5 of the Annex lists Croatia's exceptions to its 
national and MFN treatment obligation, which are: fisheries; 
and air and maritime transport, and related activities 
(including maritime services).
    Paragraph 6 of the Annex ensures that national treatment is 
granted by each Party in all leasing of minerals; concession 
rights for exploration and exploitation of mineral resources 
(reflecting the form of mineral leases under Croation law); and 
pipeline rights-of-way on government lands. In so doing, this 
provision affects the implementation of the Mineral Lands 
Leasing Act (MLLA) (30 U.S.C. 181 et seq.) and 10 U.S.C. 7435, 
regarding Naval Petroleum Reserves, with respect to nationals 
and companies of Croatia. The Treaty provides for resort to 
binding international arbitration to resolve disputes, rather 
than denial of mineral rights or rights to naval petroleum 
shares to investors of the other Party, as is the current 
process under the statute. U.S. domestic remedies, would, 
however, remain available for use in conjunction with the 
Treaty's provisions.
    The MLLA and 10 U.S.C. 7435 direct that a foreign investor 
be denied access to leases for minerals on on-shore federal 
lands, leases of land within the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale 
Reserves, and rights-of-way for oil or gas pipelines across on-
shore federal lands, if U.S. investors are denied access to 
similar or like privileges in the foreign country.
    Croatia's extension of national treatment in these sectors 
will fully meet the objectives of the MLLA and 10 U.S.C. 7435. 
Croatia was informed during negotiations that, were it to 
include this sector in its list of treatment exemptions, the 
United States would (consist with the MLLA and 10 U.S.C. 7435) 
exclude the leasing of minerals or pipeline rights-of-way on 
Government lands from the national and MFN treatment 
obligations of this Treaty.
    The listing of a sector or matter in the Annex does not 
necessarily signify that domestic laws have entirely reserved 
it for nationals. And, pursuant to Article II(2), any 
additional restrictions or limitations that a Party may adopt 
with respect to listed sectors or matters may not compel the 
divestiture of existing covered investments.
    Finally, listing a sector or matter in the Annex exempts a 
Party only from the obligation to accord national or MFN 
treatment. Both Parties are obligated to accord to covered 
investments in all sectors--even those listed in the Annex--all 
other rights conferred by the Treaty.


    As described under Article XVII(1), the Protocol states 
that the Treaty does not apply retroactively. This 
clarification was added to the Treaty at the request of 
    The other U.S. Government agencies that participated in 
negotiating the Treaty join me in recommending that it be 
transmitted to the Senate at an early date.
    Respectfully submitted,
                                                Madeleine Albright.